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"Analysis of Discretionary Rejection in Relation to Confessions, An"   flag  1

(2008) 32 Melbourne University Law Review 302
Williams, C R
Melbourne University Law Review
Australia

Cases Referring to this Journal Article

Case Name Citation(s) Court Jurisdiction Date †  Full Text Citation Index
R v Arnott [2009] VSCA 299 Supreme Court of Victoria - Court of Appeal Australia - Victoria 17 Dec 2009 AustLII flag 5

Legislation Cited

Legislation Name Provision
Intelligence Organisation Act 1979 (Cth) s34D, s34S
Crimes Act 1914 (Cth) s23G, s23S, s23V
Evidence Act 1995 (Cth) s5, s84, s85, s89, s90, s101, s135, s137, s138, s139
Criminal Procedure Act (NSW) s281
Evidence Act 1995 (NSW)
and Responsibilities) Act 2002 (NSW) s122, s123
Devices Act 1984 (NSW) s16
Police Powers and Responsibilities Act (Qld) s191, s418, s431, s436
Summary Offences Act 1953 (SA) s74C, s74G, s79A
and Interrogation) Act 1995 (Tas) s6, s9
Evidence Act 2001 (Tas) s5, s84, s85, s85A, s89, s90, s101, s135, s137, s138, s139
Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) s464A, s464C, s464H
Major Crime (Investigative (Vic)
Evidence Act 1928 (Vic)
Evidence Act 1958 (Vic)
Criminal Investigation Act 2006 (WA) s118, s138, s155
Evidence Act 2006

Cases and Articles Cited

Case Name Citation(s) Court Jurisdiction Date †  Full Text Citation Index
Carr v Western Australia [2007] HCA 47; (2007) 232 CLR 138; 239 ALR 415; (2007) 82 ALJR 1; (2007) 176 A Crim R 555 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 23 Oct 2007 AustLII flag 230
Em v R [2007] HCA 46; (2007) 232 CLR 67; 239 ALR 204; 81 ALJR 1896; 174 A Crim R 540 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 4 Oct 2007 AustLII flag 110
Tofilau v R [2007] HCA 39; (2007) 231 CLR 396; (2007) 238 ALR 650; (2007) 81 ALJR 1688; (2007) 174 A Crim R 183 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 30 Aug 2007 AustLII flag 142
Em v R [2006] NSWCCA 336 Supreme Court of New South Wales - Court of Criminal Appeal Australia - New South Wales 3 Nov 2006 AustLII flag 14
R v Duong Thanh To; R v Mau Tran [2006] SASC 126; (2006) 96 SASR 1 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia 28 Apr 2006 AustLII flag 1
R v Marks [2006] VSCA 42 Supreme Court of Victoria - Court of Appeal Australia - Victoria 21 Apr 2006 AustLII flag 7
R v Clarke [2006] VSCA 43 Supreme Court of Victoria - Court of Appeal Australia - Victoria 21 Apr 2006 AustLII flag 12
R v Hill [2006] VSCA 41 Supreme Court of Victoria - Court of Appeal Australia - Victoria 21 Apr 2006 AustLII flag 7
R v Tofilau (No 2) [2006] VSCA 40; (2006) 13 VR 28; (2006) 160 A Crim R 549 Supreme Court of Victoria - Court of Appeal Australia - Victoria 21 Apr 2006 AustLII flag 33
"Issues of Verbal Confessions and Admissions" (2006) 28 Australian Bar Review 171 Australian Bar Review Australia circa 2006 LexisNexis AU flag 1
R v Schaeffer [2005] VSCA 306; (2005) 13 VR 337; (2005) 159 A Crim R 101 Supreme Court of Victoria - Court of Appeal Australia - Victoria 16 Dec 2005 AustLII flag 15
R v Tracey (No 5) [2005] SASC 359; (2005) 93 SASR 101 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia 22 Sep 2005 AustLII flag 2
Nicholls v R [2005] HCA 1; (2005) 219 CLR 196; 213 ALR 1; (2005) 79 ALJR 468 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 3 Feb 2005 AustLII flag 126
"Applying Swaffi eld Part II: Fake Gangs and Induced Confessions" (2005) 29 Criminal Law Journal 111 Criminal Law Journal Australia circa 2005 Legal Online flag 7
R v Clarke [2004] VSC 541 Supreme Court of Victoria Australia - Victoria 31 Dec 2004 AustLII flag 2
R v Marks [2004] VSC 476; (2004) 150 A Crim R 212 Supreme Court of Victoria Australia - Victoria 24 Nov 2004 AustLII flag 13
R v Hill [2004] VSC 293 Supreme Court of Victoria Australia - Victoria 18 Aug 2004 AustLII flag 2
R v Nelson [2004] NSWCCA 231; (2004) 41 MVR 10 Supreme Court of New South Wales - Court of Criminal Appeal Australia - New South Wales 9 Jul 2004 AustLII flag 4
Mackenzie v R [2004] WASCA 146; (2004) 150 A Crim R 451 Supreme Court of Western Australia - Court of Appeal Australia - Western Australia 2 Jul 2004 AustLII flag 14
"Applying Swaffi eld: Covertly Obtained Statements and the Public Policy Discretion" (2004) 28 Criminal Law Journal 217 Criminal Law Journal Australia circa 2004 Legal Online flag 6
R v Sharp [2003] NSWSC 1117; (2003) 143 A Crim R 344 Supreme Court of New South Wales Australia - New South Wales 3 Dec 2003 AustLII flag 16
R v Phan [2003] NSWCCA 205 Supreme Court of New South Wales - Court of Criminal Appeal Australia - New South Wales 24 Jul 2003 AustLII flag 5
R v Tofilau [2003] VSC 188; (2003) 13 VR 1; (2003) 149 A Crim R 446 Supreme Court of Victoria Australia - Victoria 6 Jun 2003 AustLII flag 20
R v Fischetti [2003] ACTSC 9 Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory Australia - Australian Capital Territory 23 Feb 2003 AustLII flag 3
R v Cornwell [2003] NSWSC 97; (2003) 57 NSWLR 82; 141 A Crim R 164 Supreme Court of New South Wales Australia - New South Wales 20 Feb 2003 AustLII flag 36
R v Waters [2002] ACTSC 13; (2002) 129 A Crim R 115 Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory Australia - Australian Capital Territory 15 Mar 2002 AustLII flag 6
DPP v Carr [2002] NSWSC 194; 127 A Crim R 151 Supreme Court of New South Wales Australia - New South Wales 25 Jan 2002 AustLII flag 55
R v Munce [2001] NSWSC 1072 Supreme Court of New South Wales Australia - New South Wales 14 Nov 2001 AustLII flag 5
R v Dungay [2001] NSWCCA 443; (2001) 126 A Crim R 216 Supreme Court of New South Wales - Court of Criminal Appeal Australia - New South Wales 1 Nov 2001 AustLII flag 10
R v Helmhout [2001] NSWCCA 372; (2001) 125 A Crim R 257 Supreme Court of New South Wales - Court of Criminal Appeal Australia - New South Wales 19 Sep 2001 AustLII flag 30
R v Phan [2001] NSWCCA 29; (2001) 53 NSWLR 480; (2001) 123 A Crim R 30 Supreme Court of New South Wales - Court of Criminal Appeal Australia - New South Wales 4 Jun 2001 AustLII flag 44
"Public Policy, Police Interest: A Re-evaluation of the Judicial Discretion to Exclude Improperly or Illegally Obtained Evidence" (2001) 25 Melbourne University Law Review 757 Melbourne University Law Review Australia circa 2001 AustLII flag 6
R v Haddad [2000] NSWCCA 351; (2000) 116 A Crim R 312 Supreme Court of New South Wales - Court of Criminal Appeal Australia - New South Wales 6 Sep 2000 AustLII flag 15
R v Moffatt [2000] NSWCCA 174; (2000) 112 A Crim R 201 Supreme Court of New South Wales - Court of Criminal Appeal Australia - New South Wales 23 May 2000 AustLII flag 53
R v Lobban (2000) 77 SASR 24 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia circa 2000 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 99
R v Taylor [1999] ACTSC 47 Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory Australia - Australian Capital Territory 26 May 1999 AustLII flag 9
R v Fernando [1999] NSWCCA 66 Supreme Court of New South Wales - Court of Criminal Appeal Australia - New South Wales 14 Apr 1999 AustLII flag 77
R v Suckling [1999] NSWCCA 36 Supreme Court of New South Wales - Court of Criminal Appeal Australia - New South Wales 12 Mar 1999 AustLII flag 13
R v Bondareff [1999] SASC 316; (1999) 74 SASR 353; (1999) 109 A Crim R 23 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia circa 1999 AustLII flag 11
Question of Law Reserved (No 1 of 1998) [1998] SASC 6634; (1998) 70 SASR 281; (1998) 100 A Crim R 281 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia 24 Apr 1998 AustLII flag 49
"Police Deception, the Right to Silence and the Discretionary Exclusion of Confessions" (1998) 22 Criminal Law Journal 325 Criminal Law Journal Australia circa 1998 Legal Online flag 5
"Should the Police be Allowed to Use Deceptive Practices?" (1998) 114 Law Quarterly Review 108 Law Quarterly Review United Kingdom circa 1998 Westlaw flag 4
R v Swaffield [1998] HCA 1; (1998) 192 CLR 159; (1998) 151 ALR 98; (1998) 72 ALJR 339; (1998) 96 A Crim R 96; [1998] 1 Leg Rep C5 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth circa 1998 AustLII flag 587
R v Esposito (1998) 105 A Crim R 27; (1998) 45 NSWLR 442 Australia circa 1998 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 112
R v Bozatsis (1997) 97 A Crim R 296 Australia circa 1997 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 54
R v Clarke (1997) 97 A Crim R 414 Australia circa 1997 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 55
R v Donnelly (1997) 96 A Crim R 432 Australia circa 1997 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 14
R v Su [1997] 1 VR 1 Australia - Victoria circa 1997 LexisNexis AU flag 89
"Exclusion of Voluntary Confessions: A Question of Fairness, The" (1997) 20 University of New South Wales Law Journal 25 University of New South Wales Law Journal Australia circa 1997 AustLII flag 3
R v Swaffield [1996] QCA 236; (1996) 88 A Crim R 98 Supreme Court of Queensland - Court of Appeal Australia - Queensland 19 Jul 1996 AustLII flag 5
R v Pfitzner [1996] SASC 5462; (1996) 66 SASR 161; (1996) 85 A Crim R 120 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia 20 Feb 1996 AustLII flag 19
Markovina v R (1996) 16 WAR 354; (1996) 131 FLR 52; (1996) 93 A Crim R 149 Australia - Western Australia circa 1996 LexisNexis AU flag 18
Ridgeway v R [1995] HCA 66; (1995) 184 CLR 19; (1995) 129 ALR 41; (1995) 69 ALJR 484; (1995) 78 A Crim R 307; (1995) 8 Leg Rep C1 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 19 Apr 1995 AustLII flag 588
R v Harris (1995) 64 SASR 85 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia circa 1995 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 11
Foster v R [1993] HCA 80; (1993) 113 ALR 1; (1993) 66 A Crim R 112; (1993) 67 ALJR 550 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 19 May 1993 AustLII flag 67
Percerep v R [1993] VicRp 62; [1993] 2 VR 109; (1993) 65 A Crim R 419 Australia - Victoria 1 Apr 1993 AustLII flag 13
Pollard v R [1992] HCA 69; (1992) 176 CLR 177; (1992) 110 ALR 385; (1992) 67 ALJR 193; (1992) 64 A Crim R 393 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 24 Dec 1992 AustLII flag 179
R v Dolan [1992] SASC 3638; (1992) 58 SASR 501 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia 16 Oct 1992 AustLII flag 106
R v Smith (1992) 58 SASR 491 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia circa 1992 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 15
R v Pfennig (No 1) (1992) 57 SASR 507 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia circa 1992 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 24
R v Williams (1992) 8 WAR 265 Australia - Western Australia circa 1992 LexisNexis AU flag 39
Collie, Kranz & Lovegrove v R [1991] SASC 2996; (1991) 56 SASR 302; (1991) 55 A Crim R 139 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia 30 Aug 1991 AustLII flag 80
Petty v R [1991] HCA 34; (1991) 173 CLR 95; (1991) 102 ALR 129; (1991) 55 A Crim R 322; (1991) 65 ALJR 625 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth circa 1991 AustLII flag 201
R v Azar (1991) 56 A Crim R 414 Australia circa 1991 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 47
R v Heiss & Kamm [1990] NTSC 63; 101 FLR 433 Supreme Court of the Northern Territory Australia - Northern Territory 16 Jul 1990 AustLII flag 1
R v Parker (1990) 19 NSWLR 177; 47 A Crim R 281 Australia - New South Wales circa 1990 LexisNexis AU flag 35
R v Stiles (1990) 50 A Crim R 13 Australia circa 1990 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 10
R v Edelsten (1990) 21 NSWLR 542; 51 A Crim R 397 Australia - New South Wales circa 1990 LexisNexis AU flag 48
Duke v R [1989] HCA 1; (1989) 180 CLR 508; 83 ALR 650; (1989) 63 ALJR 139; 38 A Crim R 305 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 7 Feb 1989 AustLII flag 140
Watkins v R (1989) 50 SASR 467; (1989) 42 A Crim R 255 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia circa 1989 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 2
Van der Meer v R [1988] HCA 56; (1988) 82 ALR 10; (1988) 35 A Crim R 232; (1988) 62 ALJR 656 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 2 Nov 1988 AustLII flag 227
Morris v R [1987] HCA 50; (1987) 163 CLR 454; 74 ALR 161; 28 A Crim R 48; 61 ALJR 588 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 15 Oct 1987 AustLII flag 417
R v Kyriakou (1987) 29 A Crim R 50 Australia circa 1987 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 31
Salihos v R (1987) 78 ALR 509; (1987) 27 A Crim R 319 Australia circa 1987 LexisNexis AU flag 14
Williams v R [1986] HCA 88; (1986) 161 CLR 278; (1986) 66 ALR 385; 28 A Crim R 1; 60 ALJR 636 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 26 Aug 1986 AustLII flag 282
Phillips v R [1985] HCA 79; (1985) 159 CLR 45; (1985) 62 ALR 479; 60 ALJR 76 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 12 Dec 1985 AustLII flag 57
R v Merritt and Roso (1985) 19 A Crim R 360 Australia circa 1985 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 26
R v Kelcey [1985] VicRp 73; [1985] VR 765 Australia - Victoria 27 Nov 1984 AustLII flag 3
"Strategies for Reform of the Law Relating to Confessions" (1984) 33 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 265 International and Comparative Law Quarterly United Kingdom circa 1984 HeinOnline / Westlaw flag 1
R v Larson & Lee [1984] VicRp 45; [1984] VR 559 Australia - Victoria 7 Nov 1983 AustLII flag 14
"Judicial Discretion in Relation to Confessions" (1983) 3 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 222 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies United Kingdom circa 1983 HeinOnline / LexisNexis flag 1
Cleland v R [1982] HCA 67; (1982) 151 CLR 1; 43 ALR 619; (1983) 57 ALJR 15 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 19 Nov 1982 AustLII flag 390
MacPherson v R [1981] HCA 46; (1981) 147 CLR 512; (1981) 37 ALR 81; (1981) 55 ALJR 594 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 4 Sep 1981 AustLII flag 352
"Recent Developments in the Law Relating to Confessions: England, Canada and Australia" (1981) 26 McGill Law Journal 435 McGill Law Journal Canada circa 1981 HeinOnline / LexisNexis flag 3
Dansie v Kelly; Ex parte Dansie [1981] Qd R 1 Australia - Queensland circa 1981 LexisNexis AU flag 8
R v Hart [1979] Qd R 8 Australia - Queensland circa 1979 LexisNexis AU flag 16
R v Killick (1979) 21 SASR 321 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia circa 1979 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 9
Bunning v Cross [1978] HCA 22; (1978) 141 CLR 54; (1978) 19 ALR 641; 52 ALJR 561; 52 ALJR 560 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 14 Jun 1978 AustLII flag 882
R v Bradshaw (1978) 18 SASR 83 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia circa 1978 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 25
R v Borsellino [1978] Qd R 507 Australia - Queensland circa 1978 LexisNexis AU flag 8
Klemenko v Huffa (1978) 17 SASR 549 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia circa 1978 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 13
R v Ostojic (1978) 18 SASR 188 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia circa 1978 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 29
Driscoll v R [1977] HCA 43; (1977) 137 CLR 517; (1977) 15 ALR 47; (1977) 51 ALJR 731 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 10 Aug 1977 AustLII flag 369
R v Hart, Bullock, Peterson & Hill (1977) 17 SASR 100 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia circa 1977 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 13
R v Eyres, Eastway, Clarke & Osenkowski (1977) 16 SASR 226 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia circa 1977 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 6
R v Collins (1976) 12 SASR 501 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia circa 1976 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 14
Walker v Marklew (1976) 14 SASR 463 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia circa 1976 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 13
R v Stafford (1976) 13 SASR 392 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia circa 1976 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 45
R v Buckskin (1974) 10 SASR 1 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia circa 1974 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 4
Harris v Samuels (1973) 5 SASR 439 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia circa 1973 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 13
R v Wyatt [1972] VicRp 105; [1972] VR 902 Australia - Victoria 22 Jun 1972 AustLII flag 12
Naniseni v R [1971] NZLR 269 New Zealand circa 1971 LexisNexis flag 17
R v Ireland [1970] HCA 21; (1970) 126 CLR 321; [1970] ALR 727; (1970) 44 ALJR 263 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 3 Jul 1970 AustLII flag 547
R v Banner [1970] VicRp 31; [1970] VR 240 Australia - Victoria 31 Oct 1969 AustLII flag 41
R v Bodsworth [1968] 2 NSWR 132 Australia - New South Wales circa 1968 flag 15
"Judicial Discretion to Exclude Prejudicial Evidence" (1968) 26 Cambridge Law Journal 291 Cambridge Law Journal United Kingdom circa 1968 flag 1
Drymalik v Feldman [1966] SASR 227 Supreme Court of South Australia Australia - South Australia circa 1966 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 21
R v Buchanan [1966] VicRp 3; [1966] VR 9 Australia - Victoria 5 Jul 1965 AustLII flag 33
Webb v Cain [1965] VicRp 12; [1965] VR 91 Australia - Victoria 29 May 1964 AustLII flag 8
"Judicial Discretion" (1963) 60 Journal of Philosophy 624 Journal of Philosophy United States circa 1963 flag 1
Rogers v Richmond 365 US 534; 5 L Ed 2d 760; 81 SCt 735 United States Supreme Court United States 20 Mar 1961 WorldLII flag 259
"Discretion, Dispensation and Mitigation: The Problem of the Individual Special Case" (1960) 35 New York University Law Review 925 New York University Law Review United States circa 1960 HeinOnline / LexisNexis flag 2
R v Starecki [1960] VicRp 22; [1960] VR 141 Australia - Victoria 2 Sep 1959 AustLII flag 30
R v Williams SC Auckland [1959] NZPoliceLawRp 1; [1959] NZLR 502; (1959) 9 New Zealand Police Law Reports 91 New Zealand Police Law Reports New Zealand 20 Feb 1959 NZLII flag 6
Basto v R [1954] HCA 78; (1954) 91 CLR 628 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 17 Dec 1954 AustLII flag 52
Ha'I'ris v Direct()1' of Publ1'c Prosecutions [1952] AC 694; [1952] 1 All ER 10J4 United Kingdom circa 1952 LexisNexis / Westlaw flag 86
R v Lee [1950] HCA 25; (1950) 82 CLR 133; [1950] ALR 517 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 23 Jun 1950 AustLII flag 441
King [1949] AC 182 United Kingdom circa 1949 LexisNexis / Westlaw flag 1
R v Phillips [1949] NZLR 316 New Zealand circa 1949 LexisNexis flag 7
McDermott v R [1948] HCA 23; (1948) 76 CLR 501; [1948] 2 ALR 466 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth circa 1948 AustLII flag 403
Sinclair v R [1946] HCA 55; (1946) 73 CLR 316; [1947] ALR 37 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 23 Dec 1946 AustLII flag 131
R v Burnett [1944] VicLawRp 24; [1944] VLR 115; [1944] ALR 247 Australia - Victoria 30 Mar 1944 AustLII flag 9
Cornelius v R [1936] HCA 25; (1936) 55 CLR 235; [1936] ALR 278 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth circa 1936 AustLII flag 99
House v R [1936] HCA 40; (1936) 55 CLR 499; 10 ALJR 202; 9 ABC 117 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth circa 1936 AustLII flag 9100
"The Limits of Judicial Discretion" (1923) 32 Yale Law Journal 339 Yale Law Journal United States circa 1923 HeinOnline / Westlaw flag 2
"Theory of Judicial Decision" (1922-1923) 36 Harvard Law Review 802 Harvard Law Review United States circa 1923 HeinOnline / LexisNexis flag 1
"Theory of Judicial Decision" (1922-1923) 36 Harvard Law Review 641 Harvard Law Review United States circa 1923 HeinOnline / LexisNexis flag 7
"Theory of Judicial Decision" (1922-1923) 36 Harvard Law Review 940 Harvard Law Review United States circa 1923 HeinOnline / LexisNexis flag 7
R v Voisin [1918] 1 KB 531; [1918-19] All ER 491; 34 TLR 263 United Kingdom circa 1918 LexisNexis / Westlaw flag 63
Ibrahim v R [1914] UKPC 16; [1914] AC 599; [1914-15] All ER 874; 30 TLR 383; 111 LT 20; (1914) 24 Cox CC 174 Privy Council United Kingdom 6 Mar 1914 BAILII flag 357
Haywood v Cope [1858] EngR 372; 25 Beav 140; 53 ER 589 Rolls Court United Kingdom circa 1858 CommonLII flag 5
Mary v Tranah [1852] EngR 705; (1852) 12 CB 406; 138 ER 964; 21 LJCP 214 Court of Common Pleas United Kingdom circa 1852 CommonLII flag 7
R v Warickshall [1783] EngR 60; (1783) 1 Leach 263; 168 ER 234 United Kingdom circa 1783 CommonLII flag 60
R v Ainsworth 57 A Crim R 174 Australia circa 2001 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 3
R v Gillespie 36 A Crim R 235 Australia circa 2001 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 2

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