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Grutter v Bollinger   flag  129

539 US 306; 123 SCt 2325; 156 L Ed 2d 304; 177 Ed Law Rep 801
United States Supreme Court
United States
23rd June, 2003

Cases Referring to this Case

Case Name Citation(s) Court Jurisdiction Date †  Full Text Citation Index
South African Police Service v Solidarity obo Barnard [2014] ZACC 23; 2014 6 SA 123 Constitutional Court of South Africa South Africa 2 Sep 2014 SAFLII flag 39
Tarantino v Italy - 25851/09 29284/09 64090/09 - Hejud [2013] ECHR 255 European Court of Human Rights Europe 2 Apr 2013 BAILII flag 1
"Appendix 4 - List of Leading Cases of United States Supreme Court" [2011] NLUDLRS 9 Editors India circa 2011 LIIofIndia flag
Antonio M Serrano v Gallant Maritime Services, Inc , [2009] PHSC 291 Supreme Court of the Philippines Philippines 24 Mar 2009 AsianLII flag
Clifford Fowler v Larry Crawford [2008] USCA8 539 United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit United States 25 Jul 2008 WorldLII flag
Ashoka Kumar Thakur v Union of India [2008] INSC 616 Supreme Court of India India 10 Apr 2008 LIIofIndia flag
Ashoka Kumar Thakur v Union of India [2008] INSC 614 Supreme Court of India India 10 Apr 2008 LIIofIndia flag
Ashoka Kumar Thakur v Union of India & Others [2008] INSC 615 Supreme Court of India India 10 Apr 2008 LIIofIndia flag
USA v Charles Barry Robison [2008] USCA11 200 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 27 Mar 2008 WorldLII flag
Baranowski v Hart 486 F3d 112 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 4 May 2007 WorldLII flag 1
Bourdais II v New Orleans City 485 F3d 294 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 20 Apr 2007 WorldLII flag 1
Asociacin De Educacin Privada De Puerto Rico Inc v Garca-Padilla 490 F3d 1 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 11 Apr 2007 WorldLII flag 1
Brandt v Board of Education of City of Chicago 480 F3d 460 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 2 Apr 2007 WorldLII flag
Ashoka Kumar Thakur v Union of India [2007] INSC 334 Supreme Court of India India 29 Mar 2007 LIIofIndia flag
No 04-15306 477 F3d 1048 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 9 Feb 2007 WorldLII flag 2
Alexander v City of Milwaukee L 474 F3d 437 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 18 Jan 2007 WorldLII flag 1
Lovelace v Lee 472 F3d 174 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 29 Dec 2006 WorldLII flag 6
Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action v Granholm a 473 F3d 237 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 29 Dec 2006 WorldLII flag 3
Doe v Kamehameha Schools 470 F3d 827 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 5 Dec 2006 WorldLII flag 1
Lomack 463 F3d 303 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 18 Sep 2006 WorldLII flag 1
Vasiljkovic v Commonwealth [2006] HCA 40; (2006) 227 CLR 614; (2006) 228 ALR 447; (2006) 80 ALJR 1399 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 3 Aug 2006 AustLII flag 100
United States v Carrizales-Toledo 454 F3d 1142 United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit United States 20 Jul 2006 WorldLII flag 4
Christian Legal Society v E Walker C J 453 F3d 853 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 10 Jul 2006 WorldLII flag 6
Toledo v L Snchez v M 454 F3d 24 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 6 Jul 2006 WorldLII flag 2
No 01-56016 448 F3d 1146 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 24 May 2006 WorldLII flag 1
Kohlbek v City of Omaha Nebraska 447 F3d 552 United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit United States 1 May 2006 WorldLII flag
Stewart v J Blackwell 444 F3d 843 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 21 Apr 2006 WorldLII flag 2
Moran v Clarke 443 F3d 646 United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit United States 11 Apr 2006 WorldLII flag 3
Jana-Rock Construction Inc v New York State Department of Economic Development & I 438 F3d 195 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 21 Feb 2006 WorldLII flag
Moranski v General Motors Corporation 433 F3d 537 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 29 Dec 2005 WorldLII flag 1
Fields v Palmdale School District 427 F3d 1197 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 2 Nov 2005 WorldLII flag 7
Community Schools v Seattle School District No 426 F3d 1162 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 20 Oct 2005 WorldLII flag 9
In Re: Laura Susan Reynolds 425 F3d 526 United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit United States 10 Oct 2005 WorldLII flag 1
Rudin v Lincoln Land Community College 420 F3d 712 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 25 Aug 2005 WorldLII flag 12
Doe v Kamehameha Schools/bernice Pauahi Bishop Estate 416 F3d 1025 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 2 Aug 2005 WorldLII flag 2
Cutter v Wilkinson 544 US 709; 125 SCt 2113; 161 L Ed 2d 1020 United States Supreme Court United States 31 May 2005 WorldLII flag 32
Western States Paving Co Inc v Washington State Department of Transportation 407 F3d 983 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 9 May 2005 WorldLII flag 4
Cavalier Cavalier v Caddo Parish School Board 403 F3d 246 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 29 Mar 2005 WorldLII flag 2
Crowley v McKinney 400 F3d 965; 196 Ed Law Rep 50 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 11 Mar 2005 WorldLII flag 7
United States v Rodriguez-Preciado 399 F3d 1118 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 4 Mar 2005 WorldLII flag 10
Johnson v California 543 US 499; 125 SCt 1141; 160 L Ed 2d 949 United States Supreme Court United States 23 Feb 2005 WorldLII flag 25
Smith v University of Washington 392 F3d 367 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 20 Dec 2004 WorldLII flag 2
Forum for Academic and Institutional Rights v H Rumsfeld 390 F3d 219 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 29 Nov 2004 WorldLII flag 4
Sagana v A Tenorio 384 F3d 731 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 18 Oct 2004 WorldLII flag 10
Jacomb v Australian Municipal Administrative Clerical and Services Union [2004] FCA 1250; (2004) 140 FCR 149; (2004) 81 ALD 1; [2004] EOC 93-356; 55 AILR 100-299 Federal Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 24 Sep 2004 AustLII flag 21
Biondo v City of Chicago Illinois 382 F3d 680 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 27 Aug 2004 WorldLII flag 4
Tucson Woman's Clinic Md 379 F3d 531 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 23 Aug 2004 WorldLII flag 7
Al-Kateb v Godwin [2004] HCA 37; (2004) 219 CLR 562; (2004) 208 ALR 124; (2004) 78 ALJR 1099; 79 ALD 233 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 6 Aug 2004 AustLII flag 526
Community Schools v Seattle School District No 377 F3d 949 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 27 Jul 2004 WorldLII flag 6
Anderson Dowd v City of Boston 375 F3d 71 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 12 Jul 2004 WorldLII flag 4
Kwai Fun Wong v United States 373 F3d 952 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 25 Jun 2004 WorldLII flag 27
Vieth v Jubelirer 541 US 267; 124 SCt 1769; 158 L Ed 2d 546 United States Supreme Court United States 28 Apr 2004 WorldLII flag 46
Allen v Lee 366 F3d 319 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 28 Apr 2004 WorldLII flag 13
Homans v City of Albuquerque D 366 F3d 900 United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit United States 27 Apr 2004 WorldLII flag 4
Women's Medical Professional Corporation v Taft D H 353 F3d 436 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 1 Apr 2004 WorldLII flag 9
Petit v City of Chicago 352 F3d 1111 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 22 Jan 2004 WorldLII flag 6
Peterson v Hewlett-Packard Co 358 F3d 599 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 6 Jan 2004 WorldLII flag 5
Chicago Board of Education v Substance Inc N 354 F3d 624 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 31 Dec 2003 WorldLII flag 6
McConnell v FEC 540 US 93; 124 SCt 619; 157 L Ed 2d 491 United States Supreme Court United States 10 Dec 2003 WorldLII flag 76
Concrete Works of Colorado, Inc v City and County of Denver, Colorado [2003] USSC 7862 United States Supreme Court United States 17 Nov 2003 WorldLII flag
Purvis v New South Wales [2003] HCA 62; (2003) 217 CLR 92; (2003) 202 ALR 133; (2003) 78 ALJR 1; (2003) 77 ALD 570; [2004] EOC 93-305 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 11 Nov 2003 AustLII flag 532
Sherbrooke Turf Inc v Minnesota Department of Transportation 345 F3d 964 United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit United States 6 Oct 2003 WorldLII flag 6
Aspen Green v City of Tucson 340 F3d 891 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 20 Aug 2003 WorldLII flag 3
Johnson v California 336 F3d 1117 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 28 Jul 2003 WorldLII flag 1

Law Journal Articles Referring to this Case

Journal Article Title Citation(s) Author Jurisdiction Date †  Full Text Citation Index
"Reasonably Appropriate and Adapted? Assessing Proportionality and the 'Spectrum' of Scrutiny in McCloy v New South Wales" (2016) 35 University of Queensland Law Journal 349 Watts, Mark Australia circa 2016 AustLII flag 2
"GATT Article XX and Human Rights: What Do We Know from the First 20 Years?" (2015) 16 Melbourne Journal of International Law 432 Harris, Rachel; Moon, Gillian Australia circa 2015 AustLII flag
"Brothers in Arms Control: Introducing Australian-Style Gun Control in the United States" (2013) 12 Macquarie Law Journal 81 Hirsh, Lauren Australia circa 2013 AustLII flag
Unisa v Reynhardt [2012] PER 13 Mushariwa, M South Africa circa 2012 SAFLII flag
LawCite Unisa v Reynhardt [2012] PER 66 Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal South Africa circa 2012 SAFLII flag
"Appendix 4 - List of Leading Cases of United States Supreme Court" [2011] NLUDLRS 9 Editors India circa 2011 LIIofIndia flag
"Constitutional Borrowing" (2010) 108 Michigan Law Review 459 Tebbe, Nelson; Tsai, Robert L United States 1 Jan 2010 WorldLII flag
Making Ballot Initiatives Work: Some Assembly Required [2010] HarvLawRw 21 Harvard Law Review United States 1 Jan 2010 WorldLII flag
"Free Speech Federalism" (2009) 108 Michigan Law Review 153 Winkler, Adam United States 1 Jan 2009 WorldLII flag
"Can Courts Repair the Crumble Foundation of Good Citizenship - An Examination of Potential Legal Challenges to Social Studies Cutbacks in Public Schools" (2009) 107 Michigan Law Review 1269 Savit, Eli United States 1 Jan 2009 WorldLII flag
"Trimming" (2009) 122 Harvard Law Review 1049 Sunstein, Cass R United States 1 Jan 2009 WorldLII flag 1
"Intimate Discrimination: The State's Role in the Accidents of Sex and Love" (2009) 122 Harvard Law Review 1307 Emens, Elizabeth F United States 1 Jan 2009 WorldLII flag
Civil Rights Act, Title VII - Compliance Efforts (2009) 123 Harvard Law Review 282 Harvard Law Review United States 1 Jan 2009 WorldLII flag
Regulating Eugenics (2008) 121 Harvard Law Review 1578 Harvard Law Review United States 1 Jan 2008 WorldLII flag
Justice Thomas's Inconsistent Originalism (2008) 121 Harvard Law Review 1431 Harvard Law Review United States 1 Jan 2008 WorldLII flag
"National Constitutions in an International World" (2008) 2 Indian Journal of Constitutional Law 104 Blackshield, Tony India circa 2008 LIIofIndia flag 1
"Hobart Town Hall Thursday, 8 May 2008 Australian Red Cross Oration: The Growing Impact of International Law on Australian Constitutional Values" (2008) 27 University of Tasmania Law Review 1 Kirby, Michael Australia - Tasmania circa 2008 AustLII flag 1
Learning Through Policy Variation (2008) 118 Yale Law Journal 480 Listokin, Yair United States 1 Jan 2008 WorldLII flag 1
"Garcetti v Ceballos: Balancing Employee Free Speech with Efficient Operation of Schools in the United States of America" (2008) 13 Australia and New Zealand Journal of Law and Education 65 Mawdsley, Ralph D Australia circa 2008 AustLII flag
"Myth and the Reality of American Constitutional Exceptionalism, The" (2008) 107 Michigan Law Review 391 Gardbaum, Stephen United States 1 Jan 2008 WorldLII flag 3
"Narrow Path to Diversity: The Constitutionality of Rezoning Plans and Strategic Site Selection of Schools after Parents Involved, A" (2008) 107 Michigan Law Review 501 Collis, Steven T United States 1 Jan 2008 WorldLII flag
"Trading Action for Access": The Myth of Meritocracy and the Failure To Remedy Structural Discrimination (2008) 121 Harvard Law Review 2156 Harvard Law Review United States 1 Jan 2008 WorldLII flag
"Model Advocates or a Model for Change - The Model Equal Opportunity Briefing Policy as Affirmative Action" (2008) 32 Melbourne University Law Review 351 Bartlett, Francesca Australia circa 2008 AustLII flag 3
Mechanisms of Secrecy (2008) 121 Harvard Law Review 1556 Harvard Law Review United States 1 Jan 2008 WorldLII flag 3
"Balancing a University's Non-discrimination Policy Regarding Sexual Orientation with the Expressive Rights of Student Religious Organisations: A USA Perspective" (2007) 12 Australia and New Zealand Journal of Law and Education 47 Mawdsley, Ralph D; Mawdsley, James L Australia circa 2007 AustLII flag 1
"Open Chambers: High Court Associates and Supreme Court Clerks Compared" (2007) 31 Melbourne University Law Review 646 Young, Katharine G Australia circa 2007 AustLII flag 1
[2007] HarvLawRw 1; (2007) 121 Harvard Law Review 98 (1 January 2007) (2007) 121 Harvard Law Review 98 Harvard Law Review United States 1 Jan 2007 WorldLII flag
Justice Kennedy and the Domains of Equal Protection (2007) 121 Harvard Law Review 104 Gerken, Heather K United States 1 Jan 2007 WorldLII flag 1
Seattle and Louisville School Cases: There is No Other Way (2007) 121 Harvard Law Review 158 J Harvie Wilkinson III United States 1 Jan 2007 WorldLII flag 1
Supreme Court and Voluntary Integration (2007) 121 Harvard Law Review 131 Ryan, James E United States 1 Jan 2007 WorldLII flag 1
Constitutions and Capabilities: "Perception" Against Lofty Formalism (2007) 121 Harvard Law Review 4 Nussbaum, Martha C United States 1 Jan 2007 WorldLII flag 2
Religious Land Use in the Federal Courts Under (2007) 120 Harvard Law Review 2178 Harvard Law Review United States 1 Jan 2007 WorldLII flag
"D'Oh - Of Popular Constitutionalism, The" (2007) 105 Michigan Law Review 1333 Devins, Neal United States 1 Jan 2007 WorldLII flag
"Uncovering Identity" (2007) 105 Michigan Law Review 1283 Horwitz, Paul United States 1 Jan 2007 WorldLII flag
Pragmatic Passion of Stephen Breyer (2006) 115 Yale Law Journal 1675 Gewirtz, Paul United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag
Law's Migration: American Exceptionalism, Silent Dialogues, and Federalism's Multiple Ports of Entry 115 Yale Law Journal 1564 Resnik, Judith United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag 7
Justice Breyer's Democratic Pragmatism (2006) 115 Yale Law Journal 1719 Sunstein, Cass R United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag 2
< i > Grutter < /i > at Work: A Title VII Critique of Constitutional Affirmative Action (2006) 115 Yale Law Journal 1408 Bulman-Pozen, Jessica United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag
Judicially Manageable Standards and Constitutional Meaning 119 Harvard Law Review 1274 Richard H Fallon, Jr United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag 6
Riddle of Hiram Revels (2006) 119 Harvard Law Review 1680 Primus, Richard A United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag 2
"Glucksberg Renaissance: Substantive Due Process since Lawrence v Texas, The" (2006) 105 Michigan Law Review 409 Hawkins, Brian United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag 5
"Race Nuisance: The Politics of Law in the Jim Crow Era" (2006) 105 Michigan Law Review 505 Godsil, Rachel D United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag
A Tribute to Justice Sandra Day O'Connor (2006) 119 Harvard Law Review 1239 Joyce, Craig United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag
Ninth Circuit Holds That High School Racial Balancing Plan Does Not Violate the Equal Protection Clause (2006) 119 Harvard Law Review 1915 Harvard Law Review United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag
Beyond < i > Lawrence < /i > : Metaprivacy and Punishment (2006) 115 Yale Law Journal 1862 Greene, Jamal United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag
Freedom of Association - Freedom of Expressive Association - Campus Access for Military Recruiters (2006) 120 Harvard Law Review 253 Harvard Law Review United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag
"The Trouble with Living Tree Interpretation" (2006) 25 University of Queensland Law Journal 3 Huscroft, Grant Australia circa 2006 AustLII flag 3
Active Liberty: A Progressive Alternative to Textualism and Originalism? (2006) 119 Harvard Law Review 2387 McConnell, Judge Michael W United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag 5
"Current Landscape of Race: Old Targets, New Opportunities, The" (2006) 104 Michigan Law Review 1269 Delgado, Richard United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag
"Burkean Minimalism" 105 Michigan Law Review 353 Sunstein, Cass R United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag 8
Civil Rights, Antitrust, and Early Decision Programs (2006) 115 Yale Law Journal 880 Afram, Ruby Z United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag
Justice Breyer Throws Down the Gauntlet (2006) 115 Yale Law Journal 1699 Posner, Richard A United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag 1
Court's Agenda - And the Nation's (2006) 120 Harvard Law Review 4 Schauer, Frederick United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag 5
"Table of Cases" (2005) 24 Australian Year Book of International Law 485 Editors Australia circa 2005 AustLII flag
Pluralism and Distrust: How Courts Can Support Democracy by Lowering the Stakes of Politics (2005) 114 Yale Law Journal 1279 William N Eskridge Jr United States 1 Jan 2005 WorldLII flag 7
In Memoriam: William H Rehnquist (2005) 119 Harvard Law Review 1 Chief Justice John G Roberts, Jr , Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, R Ted Cruz, James C Duff, David G Leitch, Maureen E Mahoney United States 1 Jan 2005 WorldLII flag 1
"International Law at the Grass Roots: Some Recent Developments" (2005) 24 Australian Year Book of International Law 107 Kirby, Michael Australia circa 2005 AustLII flag
Doe v Kamehameha Schools/bernice Pauahi Bishop Estate 416 F3d 1025 Recent Case United States 2 Aug 2005 WorldLII flag
"The 2003 term: the inaccessible Constitution" (FCA) [2004] FedJSchol 1 Sackville, Justice Ronald Australia circa 2004 AustLII flag
Race as Mission Critical: The Occupational Need Rationale in Military Affirmative Action and Beyond (2004) 113 Yale Law Journal 1093 Leach, Bryan W United States 1 Jan 2004 WorldLII flag 1
Priority of Morality: The Emergency Constitution's Blind Spot (2004) 113 Yale Law Journal 1753 Cole, David United States 1 Jan 2004 WorldLII flag 4
Juries and Race in the Nineteenth Century (2004) 113 Yale Law Journal 895 James Forman Jr United States 1 Jan 2004 WorldLII flag 1
Federalist Dimension of Regulatory Takings Jurisprudence (2004) 114 Yale Law Journal 203 Sterk, Stewart E United States 1 Jan 2004 WorldLII flag 1
"The Ritual and Aesthetic in Electoral Law" (2004) 32 Federal Law Review 425 Graeme, Orr Australia circa 2004 AustLII flag
"Electoral Law Symposium: An Introduction" (2004) 32 Federal Law Review 357 Graeme, Orr; Bryan, Mercurio; George, Williams Australia circa 2004 AustLII flag
"Affirmative Action, Special Measures and the Sex Discrimination Act" (2004) 27 University of New South Wales Law Journal 840 O'Brien, Julie Australia circa 2004 AustLII flag
"2003 Term: The Inaccessible Constitution, The" (2004) 27 University of New South Wales Law Journal 66 Sackville, Ronald Australia circa 2004 AustLII flag 7

Legislation Cited

Legislation Name Provision
International Convention on the Elimination
Constitution

Cases and Articles Cited

Case Name Citation(s) Court Jurisdiction Date †  Full Text Citation Index
Miller-El v Cockrell 537 US 322; 123 SCt 1029; 154 L Ed 2d 931 United States Supreme Court United States 25 Feb 2003 WorldLII flag 662
Grutter v Bollinger 288 F3d 732; 164 Ed Law Rep 610 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 14 May 2002 WorldLII flag 8
Johnson v Bd of Regents 263 F3d 1234 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 27 Aug 2001 WorldLII flag 27
[2001] PL 107-110 [2001] PL 107-110 United Kingdom circa 2001 Westlaw flag 2
Hopwood v Texas 236 F3d 256 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 21 Dec 2000 WorldLII flag 9
Smith v Univ of Wash Law Sch 233 F3d 1188 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 4 Dec 2000 WorldLII flag 20
Tuttle v Arlington County Sch Bd 195 F3d 698 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 1 Nov 1999 WorldLII flag 13
Wessmann v Gittens 160 F3d 790; 130 Ed Law Rep 1009 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 19 Nov 1998 WorldLII flag 25
Coalition for Economic Equity v Wilson E 122 F3d 692; 66 USLW 3171 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 28 Aug 1997 WorldLII flag 24
United States v Virginia 518 US 515; 135 L Ed 2d 735; 116 SCt 2264 United States Supreme Court United States 3 Jul 1996 WorldLII flag 125
Hopwood v Texas 78 F3d 932; 107 Ed Law Rep 552; 64 USLW 2591 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 4 Apr 1996 WorldLII flag 36
Adarand Constructors, Inc v Pena 515 US 200; 132 L Ed 2d 158; 115 SCt 2097 United States Supreme Court United States 12 Jun 1995 WorldLII flag 241
United States v Lopez 514 US 549; 115 SCt 1; 131 L Ed 2d 626 United States Supreme Court United States 26 Apr 1995 WorldLII flag 657
Holder v Hall 512 US 874; 129 L Ed 2d 687; 114 SCt 2581 United States Supreme Court United States 30 Jun 1994 WorldLII flag 61
Northeastern Fla Chapter, Associated Gen Contractors of America v Jacksonville 508 US 656; 124 L Ed 2d 586; 113 SCt 2297 United States Supreme Court United States 14 Jun 1993 WorldLII flag 165
United States v Fordice 505 US 717; 120 L Ed 2d 575; 112 SCt 2727 United States Supreme Court United States 26 Jun 1992 WorldLII flag 40
Freeman v Pitts 503 US 467; 118 L Ed 2d 108; 112 SCt 1430 United States Supreme Court United States 31 Mar 1992 WorldLII flag 84
Metro Broadcasting, Inc v FCC 497 US 547; 111 L Ed 2d 445; 110 SCt 2997 United States Supreme Court United States 27 Jun 1990 WorldLII flag 85
City of Richmond v JA Croson Co 488 US 469; 102 L Ed 2d 854; 109 SCt 706 United States Supreme Court United States 23 Jan 1989 WorldLII flag 251
Johnson v Transportation Agency 480 US 616; 94 L Ed 2d 615; 107 SCt 1442 United States Supreme Court United States 25 Mar 1987 WorldLII flag 115
United States v Paradise 480 US 149; 94 L Ed 2d 203; 107 SCt 1053 United States Supreme Court United States 25 Feb 1987 WorldLII flag 101
Sheet Metal Workers v EEOC 478 US 421; 92 L Ed 2d 344; 106 SCt 3019; [1986] Yates Sel Cas 355 United States Supreme Court United States 2 Jul 1986 WorldLII flag 77
Wygant v Jackson Board of Education 476 US 267; 90 L Ed 2d 260; 106 SCt 1842 United States Supreme Court United States 30 Jun 1986 WorldLII flag 184
Regents of the University of Michigan v Ewing 474 US 214; 88 L Ed 2d 523; 106 SCt 507; [1985] Moore 431 United States Supreme Court United States 12 Dec 1985 WorldLII flag 164
Palmore v Sidoti 466 US 429; 80 L Ed 2d 421; 104 SCt 1879 United States Supreme Court United States 25 Apr 1984 WorldLII flag 95
Plyler v Doe 457 US 202; 72 L Ed 2d 786; 102 SCt 2382; 120 Idaho 121 United States Supreme Court United States 9 Sep 1982 WorldLII flag 293
General Building Contractors Association v Pennsylvania 458 US 375; 73 L Ed 2d 835; 102 SCt 3141 United States Supreme Court United States 29 Jun 1982 WorldLII flag 186
[1981] PP 322-344 [1981] PP 322-344 United Kingdom circa 1981 flag 1
Fullilove v Klutznick 448 US 448; 65 L Ed 2d 902; 100 SCt 2758 United States Supreme Court United States 2 Jul 1980 WorldLII flag 224
Orr v Orr 440 US 268; 99 SCt 1102; 59 L Ed 2d 306 United States Supreme Court United States 5 Mar 1979 WorldLII flag 86
Regents of the University of California v Bakke 438 US 265; 57 L Ed 2d 750; 98 SCt 2733 United States Supreme Court United States 28 Jun 1978 WorldLII flag 382
Board of Curators v Horowitz 435 US 78; 55 L Ed 2d 124; 98 SCt 948; 46 USLW 4179 United States Supreme Court United States 1 Mar 1978 WorldLII flag 115
Marks v United States 430 US 188; 51 L Ed 2d 260; 97 SCt 990 United States Supreme Court United States 1 Mar 1977 WorldLII flag 340
Craig v Boren 429 US 190; 50 L Ed 2d 397; 97 SCt 451 United States Supreme Court United States 20 Dec 1976 WorldLII flag 367
DeFunis v Odegaard 416 US 312; 40 L Ed 2d 164; 94 SCt 1704 United States Supreme Court United States 23 Apr 1974 WorldLII flag 311
Lee v Washington 390 US 333; 19 L Ed 2d 1212; 88 SCt 994 United States Supreme Court United States 11 Mar 1968 WorldLII flag 96
Loving v Virginia 388 US 1; 18 L Ed 2d 1010; 87 SCt 1817; 18 L Ed 1010 United States Supreme Court United States 12 Jun 1967 WorldLII flag 304
Keyishian v Board of Regents 385 US 589; 17 L Ed 2d 629; 87 SCt 675 United States Supreme Court United States 23 Jan 1967 WorldLII flag 372
Shelton v Tucker 364 US 479; 5 L Ed 231; 5 L Ed 2d 231; 81 SCt 247 United States Supreme Court United States 12 Dec 1960 WorldLII flag 368
Gomillion v Lightfoot 364 US 339; 5 L Ed 2d 110; 81 SCt 125; 5 L Ed 110 United States Supreme Court United States 14 Nov 1960 WorldLII flag 227
Cooper v Aaron 358 US 1; 3 L Ed 2d 5; 78 SCt 1401 United States Supreme Court United States 6 Oct 1958 WorldLII flag 294
Sweezy v New Hampshire 354 US 234; 1 L Ed 2d 1311; 77 SCt 1203 United States Supreme Court United States 17 Jun 1957 WorldLII flag 196
Brown v Board of Education 347 US 483; 38 ALR 2d 1180; 98 L Ed 2d 873; [1954] Idaho 349; 98 L Ed 873; 74 SCt 686 United States Supreme Court United States 17 May 1954 WorldLII flag 1011
Wieman v Updegraff 344 US 183; 97 L Ed 216; 73 SCt 215 United States Supreme Court United States 15 Dec 1952 WorldLII flag 205
Sweatt v Painter 339 US 629; 94 L Ed 1114; 70 SCt 848 United States Supreme Court United States 9 Oct 1950 WorldLII flag 78
Korematsu v United States 323 US 214; 89 L Ed 194; 65 SCt 193; 89 L Ed 2d 194 United States Supreme Court United States 12 Feb 1945 WorldLII flag 242
Missouri ex rel Gaines v Canada 305 US 337; 83 L Ed 208; 59 SCt 232; 63 L Ed 206 United States Supreme Court United States 12 Dec 1938 WorldLII flag 74
Plessy v Ferguson 163 US 537; 41 L Ed 256; 16 SCt 1138 United States Supreme Court United States 18 May 1896 WorldLII flag 265
537 US 1043 537 US 1043 United States Supreme Court United States circa 1978 Westlaw flag 9
Shaw v Hunt 517 US 899; 135 L Ed 2d 207; 116 SCt 1894 United States Supreme Court United States circa 1978 Westlaw flag 60
Nichols v United States 511 US 738; 114 SCt 1921; 128 L Ed 2d 745 United States Supreme Court United States circa 1978 Westlaw flag 123
151 Public Interest 25 151 Public Interest 25 United States circa 1978 flag 1
Grutter v Bollinger 137 FSupp 2d 821 United States circa 1978 Westlaw flag 6
"Affirmative Action" 107 Yale Law Journal 427 Yale Law Journal United States circa 1978 HeinOnline / Westlaw flag 8
86 CLR 1251 86 CLR 1251 Australia - Commonwealth circa 1978 Legal Online / Westlaw flag 2
58 Chicago Bar Record 282 58 Chicago Bar Record 282 Chicago Bar Record United States - Illinois circa 1978 flag 1
Affirmative Action: Past, Present, and Future 20 Yale Law & Policy Review 1 Yale Law & Policy Review United States HeinOnline / LexisNexis flag 2
12 TR 11-13 12 TR 11-13 1
46 University of California at Los Angeles Law Review 1583

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