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City of Richmond v JA Croson Co   flag  251

488 US 469; 102 L Ed 2d 854; 109 SCt 706
United States Supreme Court
United States
23rd January, 1989

Cases Referring to this Case

Case Name Citation(s) Court Jurisdiction Date †  Full Text Citation Index
Ashoka Kumar Thakur v Union of India [2008] INSC 614 Supreme Court of India India 10 Apr 2008 LIIofIndia flag
Ashoka Kumar Thakur v Union of India [2008] INSC 616 Supreme Court of India India 10 Apr 2008 LIIofIndia flag
Ashoka Kumar Thakur v Union of India & Others [2008] INSC 615 Supreme Court of India India 10 Apr 2008 LIIofIndia flag
Alexander v City of Milwaukee L 474 F3d 437 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 18 Jan 2007 WorldLII flag 1
Doe v Kamehameha Schools 470 F3d 827 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 5 Dec 2006 WorldLII flag 1
Lomack 463 F3d 303 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 18 Sep 2006 WorldLII flag 1
Kohlbek v City of Omaha Nebraska 447 F3d 552 United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit United States 1 May 2006 WorldLII flag
Jana-Rock Construction Inc v New York State Department of Economic Development & I 438 F3d 195 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 21 Feb 2006 WorldLII flag
Dean v City of Shreveport 438 F3d 448 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 25 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag 4
Community Schools v Seattle School District No 426 F3d 1162 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 20 Oct 2005 WorldLII flag 9
Antonelli III v New Jersey 419 F3d 267 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 17 Aug 2005 WorldLII flag 2
Warsoldier v Woodford 418 F3d 989 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 29 Jul 2005 WorldLII flag 6
Western States Paving Co Inc v Washington State Department of Transportation 407 F3d 983 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 9 May 2005 WorldLII flag 4
Cavalier Cavalier v Caddo Parish School Board 403 F3d 246 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 29 Mar 2005 WorldLII flag 2
Johnson v California 543 US 499; 125 SCt 1141; 160 L Ed 2d 949 United States Supreme Court United States 23 Feb 2005 WorldLII flag 25
Landell v H Sorrell 382 F3d 91 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 18 Aug 2004 WorldLII flag 3
Moses v Washington Parish School Board N 379 F3d 319 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 6 Aug 2004 WorldLII flag 1
Community Schools v Seattle School District No 377 F3d 949 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 27 Jul 2004 WorldLII flag 6
Anderson Dowd v City of Boston 375 F3d 71 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 12 Jul 2004 WorldLII flag 4
Utah Animal Rights Coalition v Salt Lake City Corporation 371 F3d 1248 United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit United States 16 Jun 2004 WorldLII flag 16
Thinket Ink Information Resources Inc v Sun Microsystems Inc 368 F3d 1053 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 17 May 2004 WorldLII flag 11
Bato Star Fishing (Pty) Ltd v Minister of Environmental Affairs [2004] ZACC 15; 2004 4 SA 490 Constitutional Court of South Africa South Africa 12 Mar 2004 SAFLII flag 522
Ramos v Town of Vernon 353 F3d 171 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 22 Jan 2004 WorldLII flag 7
United States v G Angel 355 F3d 462 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 9 Jan 2004 WorldLII flag 8
Concrete Works of Colorado, Inc v City and County of Denver, Colorado [2003] USSC 7862 United States Supreme Court United States 17 Nov 2003 WorldLII flag
Sherbrooke Turf Inc v Minnesota Department of Transportation 345 F3d 964 United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit United States 6 Oct 2003 WorldLII flag 6
Johnson v California 336 F3d 1117 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 28 Jul 2003 WorldLII flag 1
Malabed v North Slope Borough 335 F3d 864 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 8 Jul 2003 WorldLII flag 3
Gratz v Bollinger 539 US 244; 123 SCt 2411; 156 L Ed 2d 257; 177 Ed Law Rep 851 United States Supreme Court United States 23 Jun 2003 WorldLII flag 52
Grutter v Bollinger 539 US 306; 123 SCt 2325; 156 L Ed 2d 304; 177 Ed Law Rep 801 United States Supreme Court United States 23 Jun 2003 WorldLII flag 129
Janet Ramos v Town of Vernon and Rudolph Ross 331 F3d 315 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 2 Jun 2003 WorldLII flag 2
Quinn v City of Boston 325 F3d 18 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 27 Mar 2003 WorldLII flag 3
Concrete Works of Colorado Inc v City and County of Denver 321 F3d 950 United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit United States 10 Feb 2003 WorldLII flag 3
Zambetti v Cuyahoga Community College 314 F3d 249 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 19 Dec 2002 WorldLII flag 8
Rudebusch v Hughes [2002] USCA9 895 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 9 Dec 2002 WorldLII flag
Casey Llc v City of Newport Rhode Island 308 F3d 106 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 16 Oct 2002 WorldLII flag 1
Donahue v City of Boston 304 F3d 110 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 5 Sep 2002 WorldLII flag 8
Scott v Pasadena Unified School District 306 F3d 646 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 4 Sep 2002 WorldLII flag 8
Re City of Memphis 293 F3d 345 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 31 May 2002 WorldLII flag 1
Grutter v Bollinger 288 F3d 732; 164 Ed Law Rep 610 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 14 May 2002 WorldLII flag 8
Pryor v National Collegiate Athletic Association 288 F3d 548 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 6 May 2002 WorldLII flag 8
Community Schools v Seattle School District No 285 F3d 1236 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 26 Apr 2002 WorldLII flag 5
United States of America, Appellee, v Lemrick Nelson, JR and Charles Price, Also Known As Bald Black Man, Defendants-Appellants 277 F3d 164 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 7 Jan 2002 WorldLII flag 11
Hart v Massanari 266 F3d 1155 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 24 Sep 2001 WorldLII flag 30
Belk v Charlotte-Mecklenburg Bd of Educ 269 F3d 305 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 21 Sep 2001 WorldLII flag 9
Johnson v Bd of Regents 263 F3d 1234 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 27 Aug 2001 WorldLII flag 27
Rothe Development Corporation, Plaintiff-Appellant, v United States Department of Defense and United States Department of the Air Force, Defendants-Appellees 262 F3d 1306 United States Court of Appeals, Federal Circuit United States 20 Aug 2001 WorldLII flag 8
BB , Plaintiffs-Appellants, v Madison Metropolitan School District, John Burmaster, Nancy Zabel, Laura Mueller, Sue Perry, Annie Keith, Robert Weisner, Sue Berthouex, and Shelly Cosgrove, Defendants-Appellees 259 F3d 807 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 2 Aug 2001 WorldLII flag 4
Bass v Bd of County Comm'rs 256 F3d 1095 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 9 Jul 2001 WorldLII flag 22
Builders Association of Greater Chicago, Plaintiff-Appellee, v County of Cook, Defendant-Appellant, and Association of Asian Construction Enterprises, , Intervening-Defendants-Appellants 256 F3d 642 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 6 Jul 2001 WorldLII flag 4
Grant Danskine, Darren Altarac, , Plaintiffs-Appellants, v Miami Dade Fire Department, R D Paulison, Fire Chief, Defendants-Appellees 253 F3d 1288 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 12 Jun 2001 WorldLII flag 4
Plaintiffs-Appellants, v City of Chicago, , Defendants-Appellees 249 F3d 649 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 3 May 2001 WorldLII flag 4
United States of America, Appellee, v Pedro Luis Tejada, Defendant, Appellant 255 F3d 1 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 27 Mar 2001 WorldLII flag 3
Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v Garrett 531 US 356; 121 SCt 955; 148 L Ed 2d 866 United States Supreme Court United States 21 Feb 2001 WorldLII flag 199
United States, Appellee, v Mario Saavedra, Defendant, Appellant 250 F3d 60 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 21 Feb 2001 WorldLII flag 1
MD/DC/DE Broadcasters Ass’ns v. FCC 236 F3d 13; 344 USApp DC 322 United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit United States - District of Columbia 16 Jan 2001 WorldLII flag
Hopwood v Texas 236 F3d 256 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 21 Dec 2000 WorldLII flag 9
Smith v Univ of Wash Law Sch 233 F3d 1188 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 4 Dec 2000 WorldLII flag 20
Adarand Constructors, Inc v Slater 228 F3d 1147 United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit United States 25 Sep 2000 WorldLII flag 13
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Plaintiff-Appellant, v Humiston-Keeling, Inc , , Defendants-Appellees 227 F3d 1024 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 15 Sep 2000 WorldLII flag 9
Thigpen v Bibb County, Sheriff's Dep't 223 F3d 1231 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 30 Aug 2000 WorldLII flag 9
Weinstock v Columbia Univ 224 F3d 33 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 23 Aug 2000 WorldLII flag 18
DeWalt v Carter 224 F3d 607 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 11 Aug 2000 WorldLII flag 42
SCOTT ELWELL, Plaintiff-Appellant, v KENNETH P DOBUCKI, Defendant-Appellee 224 F3d 638 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 10 Aug 2000 WorldLII flag
Johnson v Univ of Cincinnati 215 F3d 561 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 1 Jun 2000 WorldLII flag 43
Associated General Contractors of Ohio, Inc; Associated General Contractors of Northwest Ohio, Inc , Plaintiffs-Appellees, v Sandra A Drabik, Director, Department of Administrative Services; Reginald Wilkinson, Director of Rehabilitation and Correction, Defendants-Appellants 214 F3d 730 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 1 Jun 2000 WorldLII flag 10
Laurie A Brewer, and Jodie Foster, individually and as parents and guardians of Jessica L Haak, a minor, Plaintiffs-Appellees, v The West Irondequoit Central School District, The Urban-Suburban Interdistrict Transfer Program, Monroe Number One Board Of Cooperative Educational Services, Theresa J Woodson, Gretchen Stephan and Marlene S Allen, in their individual and official capacities, Defendants-Appellants United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 11 May 2000 WorldLII flag
United States v Montero-Camargo 208 F3d 1122 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 11 Apr 2000 WorldLII flag 25
Dynamic Image Technologies, Inc , ,plaintiffs, Appellants, v United States of America, Defendant, Appellee 221 F3d 34 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 30 Mar 2000 WorldLII flag 14
WHSCOTT CONSTRUCTION Co, INC Plaintiff-Appellee, v CITY OF JACKSON, MISSISSIPPI; HARVEY JOHNSON, In his official capacity as Mayor of the city of Jackson, MS; LOUIS E ARMSTRONG, In his official capacity as a present member of the Jackson City Council; MARGARET BARRETT, In her official capacity as a present member of the Jackson City Council; CHIP RENO, In his official capacity as a present member of the Jackson City Council; KENNETH STOKES, In his official capacity as a present member of the Jackson City Council; WILLIAM BROWN, In his official capacity as a member of the Jackson City Council; ROBERT WILLIAMS, In his official capacity as a present member of the Jackson City Council; BEN ALLEN, In his official capacity as a present member of the Jackson City Council, Defendants-Appellants United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 24 Jan 2000 WorldLII flag
Nixon v Shrink Missouri Gov't PAC 528 US 377; 145 L Ed 2d 886; 120 SCt 897 United States Supreme Court United States 24 Jan 2000 WorldLII flag 57
Their Capacity As the Tyngsborough Board of Selectmen, and As the Licensing Board for the Town of Tyngsborough, and the Town of Tyngsborough, Defendants, Appellees 199 F3d 50 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 17 Dec 1999 WorldLII flag 10
Eisenberg v Montgomery County Pub Schs 197 F3d 123 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 19 Nov 1999 WorldLII flag 9
Tuttle v Arlington County Sch Bd 195 F3d 698 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 1 Nov 1999 WorldLII flag 13
Patricia Garrett, Plaintiff-Appellant, v the University of Alabama AT Birmingham Board of Trustees, Defendant-Appellee, the United States of America, Intervenor Milton Ash, Plaintiff-Appellant, v Alabama Department of Youth Services, Defendant-Appellee the United States of America, Intervenor 193 F3d 1214 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 26 Oct 1999 WorldLII flag 23
Plaintiff-Appellant, v the Regents of the University of California, and Theodore R Mitchell, Defendants-Appellees 190 F3d 1061 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 9 Sep 1999 WorldLII flag 8
Olmstead v LC 527 US 581; 144 L Ed 2d 540; 119 SCt 2176 United States Supreme Court United States 22 Jun 1999 WorldLII flag 64
Hutchins v District of Columbia 188 F3d 531 United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit United States 18 Jun 1999 WorldLII flag 18
Hayden v County of Nassau 180 F3d 42 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 9 Jun 1999 WorldLII flag 17
Associated General Contractors of America v City of Columbus 172 F3d 411 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 26 Mar 1999 WorldLII flag 1
Walker v City of Mesquite Tx 169 F3d 973 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 16 Mar 1999 WorldLII flag 10
"The status of the registered nurse in law, society and scholarship" [1999] UNSWLawTD 2 Chiarella, Mary Australia circa 1999 AustLII flag
Wessmann v Gittens 160 F3d 790; 130 Ed Law Rep 1009 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 19 Nov 1998 WorldLII flag 25
Lesage v Texas 158 F3d 213; 130 Ed Law Rep 37 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 13 Oct 1998 WorldLII flag 5
Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod v Federal Communications Commission 154 F3d 487 United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit United States 15 Sep 1998 WorldLII flag 5
SBC Communications, Inc v FCC 154 F3d 226 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 4 Sep 1998 WorldLII flag 10
Dallas Fire Fighters Association v Dallas Tx City a Cantu 150 F3d 438 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 5 Aug 1998 WorldLII flag 4
Clinton v City of New York 524 US 417; 141 L Ed 2d 393; 118 SCt 2091 United States Supreme Court United States 25 Jun 1998 WorldLII flag 71
Ho Ho 147 F3d 854; 127 Ed Law Rep 614 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 4 Jun 1998 WorldLII flag 3
Hutchins Owens v District of Columbia 144 F3d 798; 330 USApp DC 155 United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit United States - District of Columbia 22 May 1998 WorldLII flag 2
United States v Ovalle 136 F3d 1092 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 22 Apr 1998 WorldLII flag 16
McNamara v City of Chicago 138 F3d 1219 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 21 Apr 1998 WorldLII flag 31
Kartinyeri v Commonwealth [1998] HCA 22; (1998) 195 CLR 337; (1998) 152 ALR 540; (1998) 72 ALJR 722; (1998) 7 Leg Rep 2 High Court of Australia Australia - Commonwealth 1 Apr 1998 AustLII flag 410
Monterey Mechanical Co v Wilson 138 F3d 1270 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 9 Mar 1998 WorldLII flag 1
Raso v Lago 135 F3d 11 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 27 Jan 1998 WorldLII flag 7
Messer v Meno 130 F3d 130 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 11 Dec 1997 WorldLII flag 19
Engineering Contractors Association of South Florida Inc v Metropolitan Dade County E S 122 F3d 895 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 8 Oct 1997 WorldLII flag 27
Monterey Mechanical Co v Wilson 125 F3d 702 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 3 Sep 1997 WorldLII flag 20
Coalition for Economic Equity v Wilson E 122 F3d 692; 66 USLW 3171 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 28 Aug 1997 WorldLII flag 24
Abrams v Johnson 521 US 74; 138 L Ed 2d 285; 117 SCt 1925 United States Supreme Court United States 19 Jun 1997 WorldLII flag 28
Ragan III Republican Party of North Carolina [1997] USCA4 827 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 10 Apr 1997 WorldLII flag
Coalition for Economic Equity v Wilson E 110 F3d 1431 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 8 Apr 1997 WorldLII flag 7
Independent Enterprises Inc 103 F3d 1165 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 9 Jan 1997 WorldLII flag 12
Police Association of New Orleans Through Its President Ronald Cannatella v City of New Orleans 100 F3d 1159 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 9 Dec 1996 WorldLII flag 4
Cohen v Brown University 101 F3d 155; 45 Fed REvid Serv 1369; 114 Ed Law Rep 394; 65 USLW 2396 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 21 Nov 1996 WorldLII flag 23
Middleton v City of Flint Michigan 92 F3d 396 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 28 Oct 1996 WorldLII flag 5
Erwin v M Daley 92 F3d 521; 68 Empl Prac Dec P 44,249 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 18 Sep 1996 WorldLII flag 15
Eldredge v Carpenters Northern California Counties Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee 94 F3d 1366 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 9 Sep 1996 WorldLII flag 2
Alexander v Mh Estepp H 95 F3d 312 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 5 Sep 1996 WorldLII flag 5
Contractors Association of Eastern Pennsylvania Inc 91 F3d 586 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 5 Sep 1996 WorldLII flag 12
Wittmer v Peters 87 F3d 916 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 2 Jul 1996 WorldLII flag 22
Bush v Vera 517 US 952; 135 L Ed 2d 248; 116 SCt 1941 United States Supreme Court United States 13 Jun 1996 WorldLII flag 51
Abdullah v Commissioner of Insurance of Commonwealth of Massachusetts 84 F3d 18 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 20 May 1996 WorldLII flag 2
Smith v Virginia Commonwealth Univ 84 F3d 672 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 10 May 1996 WorldLII flag 14
United States v W Barber 64 USLW 2691 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 5 Apr 1996 WorldLII flag 6
Hopwood v Texas 78 F3d 932; 107 Ed Law Rep 552; 64 USLW 2591 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 4 Apr 1996 WorldLII flag 36
Austin Black Contractors Association v City of Austin Texas 78 F3d 185 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 21 Mar 1996 WorldLII flag
Nixon v Kent County 76 F3d 1381; 64 USLW 2485 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 2 Feb 1996 WorldLII flag 15
Pf Flores v City of Boerne Texas 73 F3d 1352; 64 USLW 2472 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 23 Jan 1996 WorldLII flag 17
Hamilton v Schriro 74 F3d 1545; 64 USLW 2512 United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit United States 12 Jan 1996 WorldLII flag 26
United States v W Barber 64 USLW 2691 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 5 Apr 1996 WorldLII flag 6
Dean v McWherter 70 F3d 43 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 20 Nov 1995 WorldLII flag 2
New England Health Care Employees Union v Mount Sinai Hospital 65 F3d 1024; 19 Employee Benefits Cas 1809; 64 USLW 2208 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 11 Sep 1995 WorldLII flag 10
Brooks Gl v R 59 F3d 1114 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 17 Jul 1995 WorldLII flag 9
Miller v Johnson 515 US 900; 132 L Ed 2d 762; 115 SCt 2475 United States Supreme Court United States 29 Jun 1995 WorldLII flag 82
Missouri v Jenkins 515 US 70; 132 L Ed 2d 63; 115 SCt 2038 United States Supreme Court United States 12 Jun 1995 WorldLII flag 57
Adarand Constructors, Inc v Pena 515 US 200; 132 L Ed 2d 158; 115 SCt 2097 United States Supreme Court United States 12 Jun 1995 WorldLII flag 241
Giano v Senkowski 54 F3d 1050 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 16 May 1995 WorldLII flag 32
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v American Airlines Inc 48 F3d 164 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 28 Mar 1995 WorldLII flag 5
Ensley Branch Naacp 60 F3d 717 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 14 Dec 1994 WorldLII flag
Associated General Contractors of Connecticut Inc v City of New Haven B & T 41 F3d 62; 63 USLW 2353 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 23 Nov 1994 WorldLII flag 14
Concrete Works of Colorado Inc v Denver City and County of 36 F3d 1513 United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit United States 17 Oct 1994 WorldLII flag 23
EEOC v O & G Spring and Wire Forms Specialty Co 38 F3d 872 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 11 Oct 1994 WorldLII flag 13
Aiken v City of Memphis 37 F3d 1155 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 6 Oct 1994 WorldLII flag 14
Comer v Cisneros 37 F3d 775; 30 Fed RServ3d 362 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 26 Aug 1994 WorldLII flag 33
Ensley Branch, NAACP v Seibels 31 F3d 1548; 65 Empl Prac Dec P 43,432 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 25 Aug 1994 WorldLII flag 29
Jensen v R Stiglich [1994] USCA7 900 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 3 Aug 1994 WorldLII flag
Peightal v Metropolitan Dade County 26 F3d 1545 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 29 Jul 1994 WorldLII flag 16
Johnson v De Grandy 512 US 997; 129 L Ed 2d 775; 114 SCt 2647 United States Supreme Court United States 30 Jun 1994 WorldLII flag 117
Gemtel Corporation v Community Redevelopment Agency 23 F3d 1542 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 10 May 1994 WorldLII flag 20
Pemberthy v L Beyer J Moncada 19 F3d 857; 62 USLW 2601 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 6 May 1994 WorldLII flag 13
United States v Harvey 16 F3d 109; [1994] FED App 43P United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 5 May 1994 WorldLII flag 11
Birmingham Reverse Discrimination Employment Litigation Bennett v Arrington 20 F3d 1525 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 4 May 1994 WorldLII flag 17
Gonzalez-Rivera v Immigration & Naturalization Service 22 F3d 1441; 62 USLW 2675 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 28 Apr 1994 WorldLII flag 23
Landgraf v USI Film Products 511 US 244; 128 L Ed 2d 229; 114 SCt 1483 United States Supreme Court United States 26 Apr 1994 WorldLII flag 802
Black Fire Fighters Association of Dallas v City of Dallas Texas 19 F3d 992 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 18 Apr 1994 WorldLII flag 5
Adarand Constructors Inc v Pena D N Viii 16 F3d 1537; 65 Empl Prac Dec P 43,366 United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit United States 16 Feb 1994 WorldLII flag 5
People Helpers Foundation Incorporated v City of Richmond Virginia T People Helpers Foundation Incorporated E 12 F3d 1321 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 27 Dec 1993 WorldLII flag 9
Triad Associates, Inc v Robinson 10 F3d 492 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 24 Nov 1993 WorldLII flag 24
Qutb v Strauss 11 F3d 488 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 19 Nov 1993 WorldLII flag 10
Hayes v North State Law Enforcement Officers Ass'n 10 F3d 207 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 27 Oct 1993 WorldLII flag 20
Contractors Association of Eastern Pennsylvania Inc 6 F3d 990; 62 Empl Prac Dec P 42,579 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 7 Oct 1993 WorldLII flag 16
Brunet v City of Columbus 1 F3d 390; 62 Empl Prac Dec P 42,479 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 4 Oct 1993 WorldLII flag 12
Shaw v Reno 509 US 630; 125 L Ed 2d 511; 113 SCt 2816 United States Supreme Court United States 28 Jun 1993 WorldLII flag 122
Northeastern Fla Chapter, Associated Gen Contractors of America v Jacksonville 508 US 656; 124 L Ed 2d 586; 113 SCt 2297 United States Supreme Court United States 14 Jun 1993 WorldLII flag 165
Maryland Troopers Association Incorporated Tfc v M Evans 993 F2d 1072 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 6 May 1993 WorldLII flag 9
Billish v City of Chicago 989 F2d 890 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 29 Mar 1993 WorldLII flag 15
Detroit Police Officers Association v A Young G 989 F2d 225 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 24 Mar 1993 WorldLII flag 2
United Black Firefighters Ass'n v City of Akron 976 F2d 999 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 29 Dec 1992 WorldLII flag 7
Jansen IV v City of Cincinnati 977 F2d 238 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 29 Dec 1992 WorldLII flag 5
Harrison Burrowes Bridge Constructors Incorporated v M Cuomo 981 F2d 50; 61 USLW 2384; 60 Empl Prac Dec P 41,927 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 2 Dec 1992 WorldLII flag 18
Michigan Road Builders Association Incorporated v J Blanchard [1992] USCA6 1826 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 19 Nov 1992 WorldLII flag
Hk Porter Co Inc v Metropolitan Dade County [1992] USCA11 1461 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 2 Oct 1992 WorldLII flag
Kuhn v Island Creek Coal Co [1992] USCA6 1396 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 27 Aug 1992 WorldLII flag
Billish v City of Chicago T Chicago Fire Fighters Union Local 962 F2d 1269 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 8 Jul 1992 WorldLII flag 1
Mackin v City of Boston 969 F2d 1273 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 6 Jul 1992 WorldLII flag 23
United States v Fordice 505 US 717; 120 L Ed 2d 575; 112 SCt 2727 United States Supreme Court United States 26 Jun 1992 WorldLII flag 40
O'Donnell Construction Co v District of Columbia 963 F2d 420; 60 USLW 2709; 295 USApp DC 317; 58 Empl Prac Dec P 41,466 United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit United States - District of Columbia 10 May 1992 WorldLII flag 12
Ellis v Skinner D N 961 F2d 912 United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit United States 10 Apr 1992 WorldLII flag 4
Jacobs v P Barr 959 F2d 313; 294 USApp DC 367 United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit United States - District of Columbia 27 Mar 1992 WorldLII flag 5
Vogel v City of Cincinnati 959 F2d 594 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 13 Mar 1992 WorldLII flag 48
United States v Taylor 956 F2d 572 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 10 Feb 1992 WorldLII flag 35
Podberesky v E Kirwan Naacp 60 USLW 2506 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 31 Jan 1992 WorldLII flag 7
Northeastern Florida Chapter of the Associated General Contractors of America v City of Jacksonville Florida 951 F2d 1217 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 28 Jan 1992 WorldLII flag 4
Podberesky v E Kirwan Naacp 60 USLW 2506 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 31 Jan 1992 WorldLII flag 7
Stuart v Roache 951 F2d 446 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 23 Dec 1991 WorldLII flag 19
Associated General Contractors of California Inc v Coalition for Economic Equity [1991] USCA9 1506 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 6 Dec 1991 WorldLII flag
Conlin v J Blanchard [1991] USCA6 2037 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 31 Oct 1991 WorldLII flag
Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v Casey 947 F2d 682; 60 USLW 2276 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 21 Oct 1991 WorldLII flag 21
Contractors Association of Eastern Pennsylvania Inc v City of Philadelphia 90-1295 90-1296 945 F2d 1260; 20 Fed RServ3d 1363 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 30 Sep 1991 WorldLII flag 10
South-Suburban Housing Center v Greater South Suburban Board of Realtors 935 F2d 868; 60 USLW 2022 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 5 Sep 1991 WorldLII flag 14
Johnson v Martin 940 F2d 1394; 120 Lab Cas 56,782; 6 IER Cases 1329; 60 USLW 2236; 57 Empl Prac Dec P 41,031; 56 Fair Empl Prac Cas 1218 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 4 Sep 1991 WorldLII flag 10
Coral Constr Co v King County 941 F2d 910; 57 Empl Prac Dec P 41,056 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 8 Aug 1991 WorldLII flag 44
Donaghy v City of Omaha a Pj 933 F2d 1448; 59 USLW 2733; 56 Empl Prac Dec P 40,792; 55 Fair Empl Prac Cas 1547 United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit United States 7 Aug 1991 WorldLII flag 18
Newark Branch National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 940 F2d 792; 56 Empl Prac Dec P 40,906; 69 Ed Law Rep 214; 60 USLW 2096; 56 Fair Empl Prac Cas 680 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 19 Jul 1991 WorldLII flag 13
Hernandez v New York 500 US 352; 114 L Ed 2d 395; 111 SCt 1859 United States Supreme Court United States 28 May 1991 WorldLII flag 338
Maryland Highways Contractors Association Incorporated v Maryland 933 F2d 1246; 56 Empl Prac Dec P 40,768 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 20 May 1991 WorldLII flag 19
Walsh v F Brady 927 F2d 1229; 288 USApp DC 374 United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit United States - District of Columbia 15 Mar 1991 WorldLII flag 6
Morgan v R Burke 926 F2d 86; 65 Ed Law Rep 1075 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 21 Feb 1991 WorldLII flag 3
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v Local International Association of Bridge Structural and Ornamental Ironworkers 925 F2d 588; 55 Empl Prac Dec P 40,568 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 11 Feb 1991 WorldLII flag 17
Ellison v Brady 924 F2d 872; 59 USLW 2455; 55 Empl Prac Dec P 40,520; 55 Fair Empl Prac Cas 111 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 5 Feb 1991 WorldLII flag 89
Milwaukee County Pavers Association v R Fiedler 57 Empl Prac Dec P 41,072 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 15 Jan 1991 WorldLII flag
Cone Corporation Ch v Florida Department of Transportation G 921 F2d 1190; 59 USLW 2442; 55 Empl Prac Dec P 40,518 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 8 Jan 1991 WorldLII flag 22
Roque-Rodriguez v Lema Moya 920 F2d 752; 65 Ed Law Rep 1082; 18 Fed RServ3d 1279; 55 Empl Prac Dec P 40,564 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 7 Jan 1991 WorldLII flag 11
Garza v County of Los Angeles 918 F2d 763; 59 USLW 2317 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 7 Jan 1991 WorldLII flag 20
Associated Builders Contractors of Louisiana Inc v Orleans Parish School Board 919 F2d 374; 64 Ed Law Rep 362; 18 Fed RServ3d 821; 55 Empl Prac Dec P 40,483 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 19 Dec 1990 WorldLII flag 17
Cunico v Pueblo School District 917 F2d 431; 63 Ed Law Rep 713; 54 Empl Prac Dec P 40,335; 54 Fair Empl Prac Cas 88 United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit United States 19 Oct 1990 WorldLII flag 24
Long v City of Saginaw 129 911 F2d 1192; 116 Lab Cas 10,367; 54 Empl Prac Dec P 40,153; 53 Fair Empl Prac Cas 1025 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 14 Aug 1990 WorldLII flag 10
Cone Corporation Jw v Hillsborough County J 908 F2d 908; 54 Empl Prac Dec P 40,145; 59 USLW 2168 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 13 Aug 1990 WorldLII flag 21
Metro Broadcasting, Inc v FCC 497 US 547; 111 L Ed 2d 445; 110 SCt 2997 United States Supreme Court United States 27 Jun 1990 WorldLII flag 85
Penny Saver Publications Incorporated v Village of Hazel Crest 905 F2d 150; 17 Media LRep 2057 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 21 Jun 1990 WorldLII flag 5
Northeastern Florida Chapter of Association of General Contractors of America v City of Jacksonville Florida 896 F2d 1283; 58 Ed Law Rep 1108 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 2 Mar 1990 WorldLII flag 13
Triad Associates Inc Jk v Chicago Housing Authority 58 USLW 2395 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 15 Feb 1990 WorldLII flag 32
United States v City of Chicago 894 F2d 943; 52 Empl Prac Dec P 39,629; 52 Fair Empl Prac Cas 271 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 6 Feb 1990 WorldLII flag 4
Triad Associates Inc Jk v Chicago Housing Authority 58 USLW 2395 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 15 Feb 1990 WorldLII flag 32
Davis v City and County of San Francisco 890 F2d 1438; 15 Fed RServ3d 782; 52 Empl Prac Dec P 39,498; 51 Fair Empl Prac Cas 1542 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 4 Dec 1989 WorldLII flag 26
Clark Clark v Arizona Interscholastic Association 886 F2d 1191; 56 Ed Law Rep 455 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 5 Oct 1989 WorldLII flag
International Union United Automobile Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America Uaw v Johnson Controls Inc 886 F2d 871; 58 USLW 2193; 51 Empl Prac Dec P 39,359; 50 Fair Empl Prac Cas 1627 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 26 Sep 1989 WorldLII flag 9
Mitchell v Associated Building Contractors of Nw Ohio Inc [1989] USCA6 1816 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 20 Sep 1989 WorldLII flag
Ward v Rock Against Racism 491 US 781; 105 L Ed 2d 661; 109 SCt 2746 United States Supreme Court United States 30 Aug 1989 WorldLII flag 384
Tennessee Asphalt Co v E Farris Dbe [1989] USCA6 1589 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 15 Aug 1989 WorldLII flag
Gregory Construction Co v J Blanchard [1989] USCA6 1350 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 17 Jul 1989 WorldLII flag
Webster v Reproductive Health Services 492 US 490; 106 L Ed 2d 410; 109 SCt 3040 United States Supreme Court United States 3 Jul 1989 WorldLII flag 104
United Fence Guard Rail Corporation v M Cuomo E M L 878 F2d 588 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 26 Jun 1989 WorldLII flag 7
Shurberg Broadcasting of Hartford, Inc v FCC 876 F2d 902; 278 USApp DC 24; 57 USLW 2571 United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit United States - District of Columbia 16 Jun 1989 WorldLII flag 10
Wards Cove Packing Co v Atonio 490 US 642; 104 L Ed 2d 733; 109 SCt 2115 United States Supreme Court United States 5 Jun 1989 WorldLII flag 253
Price Waterhouse v Hopkins 490 US 228; 104 L Ed 2d 268; 109 SCt 1775 United States Supreme Court United States 1 May 1989 WorldLII flag 633
United States v City of Chicago C Bigby 870 F2d 1256; 13 Fed RServ3d 86; 49 Empl Prac Dec P 38,899; 50 Fair Empl Prac Cas 682 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 24 Apr 1989 WorldLII flag 30

Law Journal Articles Referring to this Case

Journal Article Title Citation(s) Author Jurisdiction Date †  Full Text Citation Index
"Constitutional Borrowing" (2010) 108 Michigan Law Review 459 Tebbe, Nelson; Tsai, Robert L United States 1 Jan 2010 WorldLII flag
Civil Rights Act, Title VII - Compliance Efforts (2009) 123 Harvard Law Review 282 Harvard Law Review United States 1 Jan 2009 WorldLII flag
"Narrow Path to Diversity: The Constitutionality of Rezoning Plans and Strategic Site Selection of Schools after Parents Involved, A" (2008) 107 Michigan Law Review 501 Collis, Steven T United States 1 Jan 2008 WorldLII flag
Supreme Court and Voluntary Integration (2007) 121 Harvard Law Review 131 Ryan, James E United States 1 Jan 2007 WorldLII flag 1
Seattle and Louisville School Cases: There is No Other Way (2007) 121 Harvard Law Review 158 J Harvie Wilkinson III United States 1 Jan 2007 WorldLII flag 1
"Scrutinizing the Second Amendment" (2007) 105 Michigan Law Review 683 Winkler, Adam United States 1 Jan 2007 WorldLII flag 3
Justice Kennedy and the Domains of Equal Protection (2007) 121 Harvard Law Review 104 Gerken, Heather K United States 1 Jan 2007 WorldLII flag 1
[2007] HarvLawRw 1; (2007) 121 Harvard Law Review 98 (1 January 2007) (2007) 121 Harvard Law Review 98 Harvard Law Review United States 1 Jan 2007 WorldLII flag
"The Trouble with Living Tree Interpretation" (2006) 25 University of Queensland Law Journal 3 Huscroft, Grant Australia circa 2006 AustLII flag 3
A Tribute to Justice Sandra Day O'Connor (2006) 119 Harvard Law Review 1239 Joyce, Craig United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag
"Kerr Principle, State Action, and Legal Rights, The" (2006) 105 Michigan Law Review 1 Herzog, Don United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag
< i > Grutter < /i > at Work: A Title VII Critique of Constitutional Affirmative Action (2006) 115 Yale Law Journal 1408 Bulman-Pozen, Jessica United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag
"Burkean Minimalism" 105 Michigan Law Review 353 Sunstein, Cass R United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag 8
Civil Rights, Antitrust, and Early Decision Programs (2006) 115 Yale Law Journal 880 Afram, Ruby Z United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag
Why (and When) Cities Have a Stake in Enforcing the Constitution (2006) 115 Yale Law Journal 2218 Barron, David J United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag 3
Ninth Circuit Holds That High School Racial Balancing Plan Does Not Violate the Equal Protection Clause (2006) 119 Harvard Law Review 1915 Harvard Law Review United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag
Pluralism and Distrust: How Courts Can Support Democracy by Lowering the Stakes of Politics (2005) 114 Yale Law Journal 1279 William N Eskridge Jr United States 1 Jan 2005 WorldLII flag 7
Gideon in White/Gideon in Black: Race and Identity in Lawyering (2005) 114 Yale Law Journal 1459 Alfieri, Anthony v United States 1 Jan 2005 WorldLII flag 1
Race as Mission Critical: The Occupational Need Rationale in Military Affirmative Action and Beyond (2004) 113 Yale Law Journal 1093 Leach, Bryan W United States 1 Jan 2004 WorldLII flag 1
Minorities, Shareholder and Otherwise (2003) 113 Yale Law Journal 119 Chander, Anupam United States 1 Jan 2003 WorldLII flag 1
"Grutter v Bollinger: Negotiating Conflicting Rights with a Fiction of Words" (2003) 10 James Cook University Law Review 129 Anderson, Andrew Australia circa 2003 AustLII flag
Sanitized Workplace (2003) 112 Yale Law Journal 2061 Schultz, Vicki United States 1 Jan 2003 WorldLII flag 3
Legislative Constitutionalism and Section Five Power: Policentric Interpretation of the Family and Medical Leave Act (2003) 112 Yale Law Journal 1943 Robert C Post and Reva B Siegel United States 1 Jan 2003 WorldLII flag 6
"Damages Claims Against American Public School Districts for Violations of the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA): Lessons from Gonzaga University v Doe" (2003) 8 Australia and New Zealand Journal of Law and Education 19 Mawdsley, Ralph D Australia circa 2003 AustLII flag
Unclear Standards Create an Unclear Future: Developing a Better Definition of Unitary Status (2002) 112 Yale Law Journal 311 Moore, Monika L United States 1 Jan 2002 WorldLII flag
Framing Transactions in Constitutional Law (2002) 111 Yale Law Journal 1311 Levinson, Daryl J United States 1 Jan 2002 WorldLII flag 2
Anti-Antidiscrimination Agenda (2002) 111 Yale Law Journal 1141 Rubenfeld, Jed United States 1 Jan 2002 WorldLII flag 2
Equal Protection by Law: Federal Antidiscrimination Legislation < br > After < I > Morrison < /I > and < I > Kimel < /I &gt 110 Yale Law Journal 441 Robert C Post and Reva B Siegel United States 1 Jan 2000 WorldLII flag 14
"Democratic Constitutionalism and Cultural Heterogeneity" [2000] AUJlLegPhil 18 (2000) 25 (2) Australian Journal of Legal Philosophy 185 Post, Robert C Australia circa 2000 AustLII flag
"Race Power under the Australian Constitution: Altered Meanings, The" (1999) 21 Sydney Law Review 80 Malbon, Justin Australia circa 1999 AustLII flag 5
"The status of the registered nurse in law, society and scholarship" [1999] UNSWLawTD 2 Chiarella, Mary Australia circa 1999 AustLII flag
"Litmus-Testing Judicial Authority: Comparing the Wik Peoples and Thayorre People v Queensland and United Steelworkers of America v Weber" (1998) 20 Sydney Law Review 244 Tucker, David Australia circa 1998 AustLII flag 1
"Affirmative Action in a Democratic Society" (1997) 13 Queensland University of Technology Law Journal 195 Tahmindjis, Phillip Australia - Queensland circa 1997 AustLII flag
"Converging Constitutions: A Comparative Analysis of Constitutional Law in the United States and Australia" (1992-1993) 21 (2) Federal Law Review 202 Rich, William Australia circa 1993 AustLII flag

Legislation Cited

Legislation Name Provision
Constitution
Fourteenth Amendment
Fifth Amendment
Constitution

Cases and Articles Cited

Case Name Citation(s) Court Jurisdiction Date †  Full Text Citation Index
New York State Club Ass'n, Inc v City of New York 487 US 1; 101 L Ed 2d 1; 108 SCt 2225 United States Supreme Court United States 20 Jun 1988 WorldLII flag 76
Ja Croson Co v City of Richmond Ja Croson Co 822 F2d 1355; 56 USLW 2050; 43 Empl Prac Dec P 37,215 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 18 Sep 1987 WorldLII flag 7
Board of Directors of Rotary Int'l v Rotary Club 481 US 537; 95 L Ed 2d 474; 107 SCt 1940 United States Supreme Court United States 4 May 1987 WorldLII flag 57
Johnson v Transportation Agency 480 US 616; 94 L Ed 2d 615; 107 SCt 1442 United States Supreme Court United States 25 Mar 1987 WorldLII flag 115
Associated General Contractors of California Inc v City and County of San Francisco 813 F2d 922; 55 USLW 2547; 42 Empl Prac Dec P 36,894 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 23 Mar 1987 WorldLII flag 17
United States v Paradise 480 US 149; 94 L Ed 2d 203; 107 SCt 1053 United States Supreme Court United States 25 Feb 1987 WorldLII flag 101
Sheet Metal Workers v EEOC 478 US 421; 92 L Ed 2d 344; 106 SCt 3019; [1986] Yates Sel Cas 355 United States Supreme Court United States 2 Jul 1986 WorldLII flag 77
Bazemore v Friday 478 US 385; 92 L Ed 2d 315; 106 SCt 3000 United States Supreme Court United States 1 Jul 1986 WorldLII flag 153
Wygant v Jackson Board of Education 476 US 267; 90 L Ed 2d 260; 106 SCt 1842 United States Supreme Court United States 30 Jun 1986 WorldLII flag 184
City of Renton v Playtime Theatres, Inc 475 US 41; 89 L Ed 2d 29; 106 SCt 925 United States Supreme Court United States 21 Apr 1986 WorldLII flag 292
Ja Croson Co v City of Richmond Ja Croson Co 779 F2d 181; 38 Empl Prac Dec P 35,760; 54 USLW 2356 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 25 Nov 1985 WorldLII flag 5
City of Cleburne v Cleburne Living Center 473 US 432; 87 L Ed 2d 313; 105 SCt 3249 United States Supreme Court United States 1 Jul 1985 WorldLII flag 573
Garcia v San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority 469 US 528; 83 L Ed 2d 1016; 105 SCt 1005 United States Supreme Court United States 15 Apr 1985 WorldLII flag 315
Roberts v United States Jaycees 468 US 609; 82 L Ed 2d 462; 104 SCt 3244 United States Supreme Court United States 3 Jul 1984 WorldLII flag 239
Hawaii Housing Authority v Midkiff 467 US 229; 81 L Ed 2d 186; 104 SCt 2321 United States Supreme Court United States 30 May 1984 WorldLII flag 178
Palmore v Sidoti 466 US 429; 80 L Ed 2d 421; 104 SCt 1879 United States Supreme Court United States 25 Apr 1984 WorldLII flag 95
South Florida Chapter of Associated General Contractors of America Inc v Metropolitan Dade County Florida 723 F2d 846; 33 Empl Prac Dec P 34,122 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 22 Mar 1984 WorldLII flag 17
Ohio Contractors Association v Keip 713 F2d 167; 32 Empl Prac Dec P 33,717 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 7 Sep 1983 WorldLII flag 13
Karcher v Daggett 462 US 725; 77 L Ed 2d 133; 103 SCt 2653 United States Supreme Court United States 22 Jun 1983 WorldLII flag 39
Bob Jones University v United States 461 US 574; 76 L Ed 2d 157; 10 Ed Law Rep 918; 103 SCt 2017 United States Supreme Court United States 24 May 1983 WorldLII flag 169
Rogers v Lodge 458 US 613; 73 L Ed 2d 1012; 102 SCt 3272 United States Supreme Court United States 4 Oct 1982 WorldLII flag 103
FERC v Mississippi 456 US 742; 72 L Ed 2d 532; 102 SCt 2126 United States Supreme Court United States 9 Sep 1982 WorldLII flag 93
Fullilove v Klutznick 448 US 448; 65 L Ed 2d 902; 100 SCt 2758 United States Supreme Court United States 2 Jul 1980 WorldLII flag 224
City of Rome v United States 446 US 156; 64 L Ed 2d 119; 100 SCt 1548 United States Supreme Court United States 9 Jun 1980 WorldLII flag 106
City of Mobile v Bolden 446 US 55; 64 L Ed 47; 64 L Ed 2d 47; 100 SCt 1490 United States Supreme Court United States 22 Apr 1980 WorldLII flag 163
Columbus Board of Education v Penick 443 US 449; 61 L Ed 2d 666; 99 SCt 2941; 61 L Ed 666 United States Supreme Court United States 1 Oct 1979 WorldLII flag 101
United Steelworkers of America v Weber 443 US 193; 61 L Ed 2d 480; 99 SCt 2721 United States Supreme Court United States 27 Jun 1979 WorldLII flag 224
Regents of the University of California v Bakke 438 US 265; 57 L Ed 2d 750; 98 SCt 2733 United States Supreme Court United States 28 Jun 1978 WorldLII flag 382
Memphis Light, Gas & Water Div v Craft 436 US 1; 56 L Ed 2d 30; 98 SCt 1554 United States Supreme Court United States 1 May 1978 WorldLII flag 268
Hazelwood School District v United States 433 US 299; 53 L Ed 2d 768; 97 SCt 2736; 15 FEP Cases 1 United States Supreme Court United States 27 Jun 1977 WorldLII flag 282
Dayton Board of Education v Brinkman 433 US 406; 53 L Ed 2d 851; 97 SCt 2766; 53 L Ed 851 United States Supreme Court United States 27 Jun 1977 WorldLII flag 130
International Brotherhood of Teamsters v United States 431 US 324; 52 L Ed 2d 396; 97 SCt 1843; [1977] Dillon 746 United States Supreme Court United States 31 May 1977 WorldLII flag 1034
Castaneda v Partida 430 US 482; 51 L Ed 2d 498; 97 SCt 1272; [1977] Gault 141 United States Supreme Court United States 23 Mar 1977 WorldLII flag 274
United Jewish Organizations v Carey 430 US 144; 51 L Ed 2d 229; 97 SCt 996; 51 L Ed 229 United States Supreme Court United States 1 Mar 1977 WorldLII flag 74
[1977] PL 95-28 [1977] PL 95-28 United Kingdom circa 1977 Westlaw flag 4
Craig v Boren 429 US 190; 50 L Ed 2d 397; 97 SCt 451 United States Supreme Court United States 20 Dec 1976 WorldLII flag 367
Pasadena City Board of Education v Spangler 427 US 424; 384 FSupp 846; 49 L Ed 2d 599; 96 SCt 2697 United States Supreme Court United States 28 Jun 1976 WorldLII flag 152
Runyon v McCrary 427 US 160; 49 L Ed 2d 415; 96 SCt 2586 United States Supreme Court United States 25 Jun 1976 WorldLII flag 278
City of Richmond v United States 422 US 358; 45 L Ed 2d 245; 95 SCt 2296 United States Supreme Court United States 24 Jun 1975 WorldLII flag 41
Weinberger v Wiesenfeld 420 US 636; 43 L Ed 2d 514; 95 SCt 1225; 643 Gault 387 United States Supreme Court United States 19 Mar 1975 WorldLII flag 171
Milliken v Bradley 418 US 717; 41 L Ed 2d 1069; 94 SCt 3112 United States Supreme Court United States 25 Jul 1974 WorldLII flag 208
Gilmore v City of Montgomery 417 US 556; 41 L Ed 2d 304; 94 SCt 2416 United States Supreme Court United States 17 Jun 1974 WorldLII flag 44
DeFunis v Odegaard 416 US 312; 40 L Ed 2d 164; 94 SCt 1704 United States Supreme Court United States 23 Apr 1974 WorldLII flag 311
Mayor of Philadelphia v Educational Equality League 415 US 605; 39 L Ed 2d 630; 94 SCt 1323 United States Supreme Court United States 25 Mar 1974 WorldLII flag 118
Keyes v School Dist 413 US 189; 37 L Ed 2d 548; 93 SCt 2686; 37 L Ed 548; 41 USLW 5013-5020 United States Supreme Court United States 9 Oct 1973 WorldLII flag 196
School Bd of Richmond v State Bd of Ed of Va 93 SCt 1952 United States Supreme Court United States 9 Oct 1973 WorldLII flag 26
Norwood v Harrison 413 US 455; 37 L Ed 2d 723; 93 SCt 2804 United States Supreme Court United States 25 Jun 1973 WorldLII flag 59
Frontiero v Richardson 411 US 677; 36 L Ed 2d 583; 93 SCt 1764; 95 L Ed 884 United States Supreme Court United States 14 May 1973 WorldLII flag 226
McDonnell Douglas Corporation v Green 411 US 792; 93 SCt 1817; 36 L Ed 2; 36 L Ed 2d 668; 36 L Ed 668; 802 Fisher 114 United States Supreme Court United States 14 May 1973 WorldLII flag 4079
San Antonio Independent School District v Rodriguez 411 US 1; 36 L Ed 2d 16; 93 SCt 1278; (1973) 41 USLW 4407 United States Supreme Court United States 23 Apr 1973 WorldLII flag 480
Cousins v City Council of Chicago 466 F2d 830 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 10 Oct 1972 WorldLII flag 18
Swann v Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education 402 US 1; 28 L Ed 2d 554; 91 SCt 1267; 28 L Ed 554; 15-16 Green 391 United States Supreme Court United States - New Jersey 7 Jun 1971 WorldLII flag 588
North Carolina State Board of Education v Swann 402 US 43; 28 L Ed 2d 586; 91 SCt 1284 United States Supreme Court United States 20 Apr 1971 WorldLII flag 71
McDaniel v Barresi 402 US 39; 28 L Ed 2d 582; 91 SCt 1287 United States Supreme Court United States 20 Apr 1971 WorldLII flag 38
United States v Montgomery County Board of Education 395 US 225; 23 L Ed 2d 263; 89 SCt 1670 United States Supreme Court United States 2 Jun 1969 WorldLII flag 66
Green v County School Board 391 US 430; 20 L Ed 2d 716; 88 SCt 1689 United States Supreme Court United States 27 May 1968 WorldLII flag 422
Raney v Board of Education 391 US 443; 20 L Ed 2d 727; 88 SCt 1697; 20 L Ed 727 United States Supreme Court United States 27 May 1968 WorldLII flag 90
Lee v Washington 390 US 333; 19 L Ed 2d 1212; 88 SCt 994 United States Supreme Court United States 11 Mar 1968 WorldLII flag 96
Katzenbach v Morgan 384 US 641; 16 L Ed 2d 828; 86 SCt 1717 United States Supreme Court United States 13 Jun 1966 WorldLII flag 198
South Carolina v Katzenbach 383 US 301; 15 L Ed 2d 769; 86 SCt 803 United States Supreme Court United States 7 Mar 1966 WorldLII flag 197
McLaughlin v Florida 379 US 184; 13 L Ed 2d 222; 85 SCt 283 United States Supreme Court United States 7 Dec 1964 WorldLII flag 167
Cooper v Aaron 358 US 1; 3 L Ed 2d 5; 78 SCt 1401 United States Supreme Court United States 6 Oct 1958 WorldLII flag 294
Brown v Board of Education 349 US 294; 99 L Ed 1083; 75 SCt 753 United States Supreme Court United States 31 May 1955 WorldLII flag 449
Williamson v Lee Optical Co 348 US 483; 99 L Ed 563; 75 SCt 461; 99 L Ed 2d 563 United States Supreme Court United States 9 May 1955 WorldLII flag 464
Bolling v Sharpe 347 US 497; 98 L Ed 884; 74 SCt 693 United States Supreme Court United States 17 May 1954 WorldLII flag 573
Brown v Board of Education 347 US 483; 38 ALR 2d 1180; 98 L Ed 2d 873; [1954] Idaho 349; 98 L Ed 873; 74 SCt 686 United States Supreme Court United States 17 May 1954 WorldLII flag 1011
Hernandez v Texas 347 US 475; 98 L Ed 866; 74 SCt 667; 98 L Ed 2d 866 United States Supreme Court United States 3 May 1954 WorldLII flag 166
Shelley v Kraemer 334 US 1; 68 SCt 836; 3 ALR 2d 441; 92 L Ed 1161 United States Supreme Court United States 3 May 1948 WorldLII flag 374
Railway Mail Ass'n v Corsi 326 US 88; 89 L Ed 2072; 65 SCt 1483 United States Supreme Court United States 18 Jun 1945 WorldLII flag 48
Korematsu v United States 323 US 214; 89 L Ed 194; 65 SCt 193; 89 L Ed 2d 194 United States Supreme Court United States 12 Feb 1945 WorldLII flag 242
United States v Carolene Products Co 304 US 144; 82 L Ed 1234; 58 SCt 778 United States Supreme Court United States 25 Apr 1938 WorldLII flag 316
Plessy v Ferguson 163 US 537; 41 L Ed 256; 16 SCt 1138 United States Supreme Court United States 18 May 1896 WorldLII flag 265
Yick Wo v Hopkins 6 SCt 1064 United States Supreme Court United States 10 May 1886 WorldLII flag 634
Ex parte Virginia 100 US 339; 10 Ot 339; 25 L Ed 676 United States Supreme Court United States 1 Oct 1879 WorldLII flag 233
Slaughter-House Cases 371 US 820; 9 L Ed 2d 61; 16 Wall 36; 21 L Ed 394; 83 SCt 36 United States Supreme Court United States 1 Dec 1872 WorldLII flag 245
Griffin v County School Board of Prince Edward County 377 US 218; 12 L Ed 2d 256; 84 SCt 1226; 12 L Ed 256 United States Supreme Court United States 1 Jan 1847 WorldLII flag 211
e g , Michigan Road Builders Assn , Inc v Milliken 834 F2d 583 United States Westlaw flag 7
sub nom Morrison v Olson 484 US 1058; 98 L Ed 2d 976; 108 SCt 1010 United States Supreme Court United States Westlaw flag 10
Kemp v Brooks 478 US 1016; 92 L Ed 2d 732; 106 SCt 3325 United States Supreme Court United States Westlaw flag 44
469 US 871 469 US 871; 105 SCt 220; 83 L Ed 2d 150; [1984] Adams 739 United States Supreme Court United States Westlaw flag 82
Bradley v School Board of the City of Richmond 462 F2d 1058 United States Westlaw flag 26
409 US 893; 93 SCt 85; 34 l Ed 2d 151 409 US 893; 93 SCt 85; 34 L Ed 2d 151 United States Supreme Court United States Westlaw flag 19
"Fullilove" 96 Yale Law Journal 453 Yale Law Journal United States HeinOnline / Westlaw flag 5
66 Oregon Law Review 454 66 Oregon Law Review 454 Oregon Law Review United States HeinOnline / LexisNexis flag 1
Fullilove: Benign Discrimination and Congressional Power to Enforce the Fourteenth Amendment 56 Indiana Law Journal 473 Indiana Law Journal United States HeinOnline / LexisNexis flag 1
"The Constitutionality of Reverse Racial Discrimination" 41 University of Chicago Law Review 723 University of Chicago Law Review United States HeinOnline / LexisNexis flag 21

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