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Wygant v Jackson Board of Education   flag  184

476 US 267; 90 L Ed 2d 260; 106 SCt 1842
United States Supreme Court
United States
30th June, 1986

Cases Referring to this Case

Case Name Citation(s) Court Jurisdiction Date †  Full Text Citation Index
Henry, Ersol v Milwaukee County [2008] USCA7 507 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 20 Aug 2008 WorldLII flag
Lomack 463 F3d 303 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 18 Sep 2006 WorldLII flag 1
Dean v City of Shreveport 438 F3d 448 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 25 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag 4
Community Schools v Seattle School District No 426 F3d 1162 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 20 Oct 2005 WorldLII flag 9
Western States Paving Co Inc v Washington State Department of Transportation 407 F3d 983 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 9 May 2005 WorldLII flag 4
Centro Espirita Beneficiente Uniao Do Vegetal Udv-Usa v Ashcroft H C F 389 F3d 973 United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit United States 12 Nov 2004 WorldLII flag 13
Ball v Union Carbide Corporation 385 F3d 713 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 30 Sep 2004 WorldLII flag 4
Landell v H Sorrell 382 F3d 91 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 18 Aug 2004 WorldLII flag 3
Community Schools v Seattle School District No 377 F3d 949 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 27 Jul 2004 WorldLII flag 6
Ball v Union Carbide Corporation 376 F3d 554 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 15 Jul 2004 WorldLII flag
Petit v City of Chicago 352 F3d 1111 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 22 Jan 2004 WorldLII flag 6
Concrete Works of Colorado, Inc v City and County of Denver, Colorado [2003] USSC 7862 United States Supreme Court United States 17 Nov 2003 WorldLII flag
Sherbrooke Turf Inc v Minnesota Department of Transportation 345 F3d 964 United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit United States 6 Oct 2003 WorldLII flag 6
Grutter v Bollinger 539 US 306; 123 SCt 2325; 156 L Ed 2d 304; 177 Ed Law Rep 801 United States Supreme Court United States 23 Jun 2003 WorldLII flag 129
Gratz v Bollinger 539 US 244; 123 SCt 2411; 156 L Ed 2d 257; 177 Ed Law Rep 851 United States Supreme Court United States 23 Jun 2003 WorldLII flag 52
Quinn v City of Boston 325 F3d 18 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 27 Mar 2003 WorldLII flag 3
Cotter v City of Boston 323 F3d 160 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 25 Mar 2003 WorldLII flag 7
Concrete Works of Colorado Inc v City and County of Denver 321 F3d 950 United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit United States 10 Feb 2003 WorldLII flag 3
Patrolmen's Benevolent Association of the City of New York v The City of New York J a 310 F3d 43 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 17 Oct 2002 WorldLII flag 7
Clark v Putnam County Naacp 293 F3d 1261 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 10 Jun 2002 WorldLII flag
Grutter v Bollinger 288 F3d 732; 164 Ed Law Rep 610 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 14 May 2002 WorldLII flag 8
Pryor v National Collegiate Athletic Association 288 F3d 548 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 6 May 2002 WorldLII flag 8
United States of America, Appellee, v Lemrick Nelson, JR and Charles Price, Also Known As Bald Black Man, Defendants-Appellants 277 F3d 164 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 7 Jan 2002 WorldLII flag 11
Vaughn v Lawrenceburg Power Sys 269 F3d 703 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 19 Oct 2001 WorldLII flag 13
Belk v Charlotte-Mecklenburg Bd of Educ 269 F3d 305 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 21 Sep 2001 WorldLII flag 9
Johnson v Bd of Regents 263 F3d 1234 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 27 Aug 2001 WorldLII flag 27
BB , Plaintiffs-Appellants, v Madison Metropolitan School District, John Burmaster, Nancy Zabel, Laura Mueller, Sue Perry, Annie Keith, Robert Weisner, Sue Berthouex, and Shelly Cosgrove, Defendants-Appellees 259 F3d 807 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 2 Aug 2001 WorldLII flag 4
Bass v Bd of County Comm'rs 256 F3d 1095 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 9 Jul 2001 WorldLII flag 22
Builders Association of Greater Chicago, Plaintiff-Appellee, v County of Cook, Defendant-Appellant, and Association of Asian Construction Enterprises, , Intervening-Defendants-Appellants 256 F3d 642 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 6 Jul 2001 WorldLII flag 4
Ball v Massanari 254 F3d 817 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 15 Jun 2001 WorldLII flag 6
Plaintiffs-Appellants, v City of Chicago, , Defendants-Appellees 249 F3d 649 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 3 May 2001 WorldLII flag 4
Susan Doe, Mary Doe and Lisa Doe, Plaintiffs-Appellants, v Beaumont Independent School District, Defendant-Appellee 240 F3d 462 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 31 Jan 2001 WorldLII flag 5
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Plaintiff Appellee, v SECRETARY OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT, Third-Party Defendant SHIRLEY C BROWN, in her capacity as a member of the State Board of Regents; LORA BRADLEY CHODOS, in her official capacity as a member of the State Board of Regents; THOMAS FREY, in his official capacity as a member of the State Board of Regents; WILLARD A GENRICH, In his official capacity as a member of the State Board of Regents; NORMA GLUCK; EMLYN I GRIFFITH, in her official capacity as a member of the State Board of Regents; FLOYD S LINTON, in his official capacity as a member of the State Board of Regents; VINCENT TESE; UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT; SAMUEL PIERCE; SALVADORE SCLAFINI, in his official capacity as a member of the State Board of Regents; THOMAS SOBOL; MARIO CUOMO; MARTIN C BARRELL, in his official capacity as a member of the State Board of Regents; JAMES MCCABE, SR , in his official capacity as a member of the State Board of Regents; MIMI LEVIN LIEBER, in her official capacity as a member of the State Board of Regents; YONKERS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AGENCY, Defendants Appellees, CITY OF YONKERS; Defendant Appellant Cross Appellee, YONKERS BOARD OF EDUCATION, Defendants Appellants, v YONKERS FEDERATION OF TEACHERS; Intervenor Defendant YONKERS BRANCH NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE; Intervenor Plaintiff Appellee Cross Appellant, R CARLOS CARBALLADA, in his official capacity as a member of the State Board of Regents; LOUISE P MATTEONI, in his official capacity as member of the State Board of Regents; EDWARD MEYER, in his official capacity as a member of the State Board of Regents; JORGE L BATTISTA, in his official capacity as a member of the State Board of Regents; NEW YORK; BOARD OF REGENTS OF NEW YORK; ADELAIDE L SANFORD, in her official capacity as a member of the State Board of Regents; URBAN DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION OF NEW YORK; GEORGE PATAKI, as Governor of New York; R United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 5 Jan 2001 WorldLII flag
Hopwood v Texas 236 F3d 256 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 21 Dec 2000 WorldLII flag 9
Smith v Univ of Wash Law Sch 233 F3d 1188 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 4 Dec 2000 WorldLII flag 20
Adarand Constructors, Inc v Slater 228 F3d 1147 United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit United States 25 Sep 2000 WorldLII flag 13
Thigpen v Bibb County, Sheriff's Dep't 223 F3d 1231 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 30 Aug 2000 WorldLII flag 9
Associated General Contractors of Ohio, Inc; Associated General Contractors of Northwest Ohio, Inc , Plaintiffs-Appellees, v Sandra A Drabik, Director, Department of Administrative Services; Reginald Wilkinson, Director of Rehabilitation and Correction, Defendants-Appellants 214 F3d 730 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 1 Jun 2000 WorldLII flag 10
Laurie A Brewer, and Jodie Foster, individually and as parents and guardians of Jessica L Haak, a minor, Plaintiffs-Appellees, v The West Irondequoit Central School District, The Urban-Suburban Interdistrict Transfer Program, Monroe Number One Board Of Cooperative Educational Services, Theresa J Woodson, Gretchen Stephan and Marlene S Allen, in their individual and official capacities, Defendants-Appellants United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 11 May 2000 WorldLII flag
United States v Montero-Camargo 208 F3d 1122 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 11 Apr 2000 WorldLII flag 25
WHSCOTT CONSTRUCTION Co, INC Plaintiff-Appellee, v CITY OF JACKSON, MISSISSIPPI; HARVEY JOHNSON, In his official capacity as Mayor of the city of Jackson, MS; LOUIS E ARMSTRONG, In his official capacity as a present member of the Jackson City Council; MARGARET BARRETT, In her official capacity as a present member of the Jackson City Council; CHIP RENO, In his official capacity as a present member of the Jackson City Council; KENNETH STOKES, In his official capacity as a present member of the Jackson City Council; WILLIAM BROWN, In his official capacity as a member of the Jackson City Council; ROBERT WILLIAMS, In his official capacity as a present member of the Jackson City Council; BEN ALLEN, In his official capacity as a present member of the Jackson City Council, Defendants-Appellants United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 24 Jan 2000 WorldLII flag
"The 'best qualified' - for what? The place of affirmative action in a mission-focused New Zealand law school admissions policy" [2000] NZYbkNZJur 5 MacKinnon, Ken Australia circa 2000 NZLII flag
Eisenberg v Montgomery County Pub Schs 197 F3d 123 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 19 Nov 1999 WorldLII flag 9
Karl C Schurr, Appellant, v Resorts International Hotel, Inc; New Jersey State Casino Control Commission; James Hurley * , Chairman of the New Jersey State Casino Control Commission 196 F3d 486 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 12 Nov 1999 WorldLII flag 2
L Shaq, Plaintiffs-Appellants, v School Board of Broward County, Florida, Frank Pettruzzielo, Defendants-Appellees 193 F3d 1285 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 28 Oct 1999 WorldLII flag 7
Plaintiff-Appellant, v the Regents of the University of California, and Theodore R Mitchell, Defendants-Appellees 190 F3d 1061 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 9 Sep 1999 WorldLII flag 8
Paul Hill, Plaintiff-Appellant, v Howard L Ross, , Defendants-Appellees 183 F3d 586 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 23 Jun 1999 WorldLII flag 5
Hayden v County of Nassau 180 F3d 42 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 9 Jun 1999 WorldLII flag 17
Walker v City of Mesquite Tx 169 F3d 973 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 16 Mar 1999 WorldLII flag 10
Wessmann v Gittens 160 F3d 790; 130 Ed Law Rep 1009 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 19 Nov 1998 WorldLII flag 25
United States v Ovalle 136 F3d 1092 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 22 Apr 1998 WorldLII flag 16
Raso v Lago 135 F3d 11 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 27 Jan 1998 WorldLII flag 7
Messer v Meno 130 F3d 130 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 11 Dec 1997 WorldLII flag 19
Engineering Contractors Association of South Florida Inc v Metropolitan Dade County E S 122 F3d 895 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 8 Oct 1997 WorldLII flag 27
Monterey Mechanical Co v Wilson 125 F3d 702 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 3 Sep 1997 WorldLII flag 20
Coalition for Economic Equity v Wilson E 122 F3d 692; 66 USLW 3171 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 28 Aug 1997 WorldLII flag 24
Lawyer v Department of Justice 521 US 567; 138 L Ed 2d 669; 117 SCt 2186 United States Supreme Court United States 25 Jun 1997 WorldLII flag 9
Abrams v Johnson 521 US 74; 138 L Ed 2d 285; 117 SCt 1925 United States Supreme Court United States 19 Jun 1997 WorldLII flag 28
People Who Care v Rockford Board of Education School District 111 F3d 528; 117 Ed Law Rep 473; 65 USLW 2690; 152 ALRFed 677 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 3 Jun 1997 WorldLII flag 21
Coalition for Economic Equity v Wilson E 110 F3d 1431 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 8 Apr 1997 WorldLII flag 7
Police Association of New Orleans Through Its President Ronald Cannatella v City of New Orleans 100 F3d 1159 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 9 Dec 1996 WorldLII flag 4
Cohen v Brown University 101 F3d 155; 45 Fed REvid Serv 1369; 114 Ed Law Rep 394; 65 USLW 2396 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 21 Nov 1996 WorldLII flag 23
Middleton v City of Flint Michigan 92 F3d 396 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 28 Oct 1996 WorldLII flag 5
Erwin v M Daley 92 F3d 521; 68 Empl Prac Dec P 44,249 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 18 Sep 1996 WorldLII flag 15
Crawford v E Lungren K W 96 F3d 380; 24 Media LRep 2576; 65 USLW 2204 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 11 Sep 1996 WorldLII flag 32
Contractors Association of Eastern Pennsylvania Inc 91 F3d 586 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 5 Sep 1996 WorldLII flag 12
Taxman v Board of Education of Township of Piscataway Taxman 91 F3d 1547 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 21 Aug 1996 WorldLII flag 13
Wittmer v Peters 87 F3d 916 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 2 Jul 1996 WorldLII flag 22
Bush v Vera 517 US 952; 135 L Ed 2d 248; 116 SCt 1941 United States Supreme Court United States 13 Jun 1996 WorldLII flag 51
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v Local 81 F3d 1162 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 10 Apr 1996 WorldLII flag 11
Hopwood v Texas 78 F3d 932; 107 Ed Law Rep 552; 64 USLW 2591 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 4 Apr 1996 WorldLII flag 36
Miller v Johnson 515 US 900; 132 L Ed 2d 762; 115 SCt 2475 United States Supreme Court United States 29 Jun 1995 WorldLII flag 82
Adarand Constructors, Inc v Pena 515 US 200; 132 L Ed 2d 158; 115 SCt 2097 United States Supreme Court United States 12 Jun 1995 WorldLII flag 241
Birmingham Reverse Discrimination Employment Litigation Bennett v Arrington 60 F3d 720 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 14 Dec 1994 WorldLII flag
Associated General Contractors of Connecticut Inc v City of New Haven B & T 41 F3d 62; 63 USLW 2353 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 23 Nov 1994 WorldLII flag 14
National Treasury Employees Union v United States Customs Service 27 F3d 623; 9 IER Cases 1117; 63 USLW 2061; 307 USApp DC 173 United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit United States - District of Columbia 28 Oct 1994 WorldLII flag 2
Cameron v Seitz 38 F3d 264; 9 IER Cases 1731 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 21 Oct 1994 WorldLII flag 19
Concrete Works of Colorado Inc v Denver City and County of 36 F3d 1513 United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit United States 17 Oct 1994 WorldLII flag 23
Aiken v City of Memphis 37 F3d 1155 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 6 Oct 1994 WorldLII flag 14
Ensley Branch, NAACP v Seibels 31 F3d 1548; 65 Empl Prac Dec P 43,432 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 25 Aug 1994 WorldLII flag 29
Peightal v Metropolitan Dade County 26 F3d 1545 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 29 Jul 1994 WorldLII flag 16
Jeldness v B Pearce 30 F3d 1220; 93 Ed Law Rep 146; 63 USLW 2090 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 28 Jul 1994 WorldLII flag 10
Hopwood v Texas 21 F3d 603; 90 Ed Law Rep 1014 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 11 May 1994 WorldLII flag 5
Pemberthy v L Beyer J Moncada 19 F3d 857; 62 USLW 2601 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 6 May 1994 WorldLII flag 13
United States v Harvey 16 F3d 109; [1994] FED App 43P United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 5 May 1994 WorldLII flag 11
Birmingham Reverse Discrimination Employment Litigation Bennett v Arrington 20 F3d 1525 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 4 May 1994 WorldLII flag 17
Black Fire Fighters Association of Dallas v City of Dallas Texas 19 F3d 992 United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit United States 18 Apr 1994 WorldLII flag 5
Hayes v North State Law Enforcement Officers Ass'n 10 F3d 207 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 27 Oct 1993 WorldLII flag 20
Contractors Association of Eastern Pennsylvania Inc 6 F3d 990; 62 Empl Prac Dec P 42,579 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 7 Oct 1993 WorldLII flag 16
Brunet v City of Columbus 1 F3d 390; 62 Empl Prac Dec P 42,479 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 4 Oct 1993 WorldLII flag 12
United States v City of Miami 2 F3d 1497 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 17 Sep 1993 WorldLII flag 16
Shaw v Reno 509 US 630; 125 L Ed 2d 511; 113 SCt 2816 United States Supreme Court United States 28 Jun 1993 WorldLII flag 122
Crumpton v Bridgeport Education Association 993 F2d 1023 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 17 May 1993 WorldLII flag 5
Maryland Troopers Association Incorporated Tfc v M Evans 993 F2d 1072 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 6 May 1993 WorldLII flag 9
Billish v City of Chicago 989 F2d 890 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 29 Mar 1993 WorldLII flag 15
Detroit Police Officers Association v A Young G 989 F2d 225 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 24 Mar 1993 WorldLII flag 2
United Black Firefighters Ass'n v City of Akron 976 F2d 999 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 29 Dec 1992 WorldLII flag 7
Jansen IV v City of Cincinnati 977 F2d 238 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 29 Dec 1992 WorldLII flag 5
Officers for Justice v Civil Serv Comm'n 979 F2d 721 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 5 Nov 1992 WorldLII flag 65
Billish v City of Chicago T Chicago Fire Fighters Union Local 962 F2d 1269 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 8 Jul 1992 WorldLII flag 1
Mackin v City of Boston 969 F2d 1273 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 6 Jul 1992 WorldLII flag 23
O'Donnell Construction Co v District of Columbia 963 F2d 420; 60 USLW 2709; 295 USApp DC 317; 58 Empl Prac Dec P 41,466 United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit United States - District of Columbia 10 May 1992 WorldLII flag 12
People Who Care v Rockford Board of Education 961 F2d 1335 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 22 Apr 1992 WorldLII flag 13
Vogel v City of Cincinnati 959 F2d 594 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 13 Mar 1992 WorldLII flag 48
United States v Taylor 956 F2d 572 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 10 Feb 1992 WorldLII flag 35
Podberesky v E Kirwan Naacp 60 USLW 2506 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 31 Jan 1992 WorldLII flag 7
Podberesky v E Kirwan Naacp 60 USLW 2506 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 31 Jan 1992 WorldLII flag 7
Stuart v Roache 951 F2d 446 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 23 Dec 1991 WorldLII flag 19
Simon & Schuster, Inc v Members of N Y State Crime Victims Bd 502 US 105; 116 L Ed 2d 476; 112 SCt 501 United States Supreme Court United States 10 Dec 1991 WorldLII flag 94
Associated General Contractors of California Inc v Coalition for Economic Equity [1991] USCA9 1506 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 6 Dec 1991 WorldLII flag
Conlin v J Blanchard [1991] USCA6 2037 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 31 Oct 1991 WorldLII flag
Johnson v Martin 940 F2d 1394; 120 Lab Cas 56,782; 6 IER Cases 1329; 60 USLW 2236; 57 Empl Prac Dec P 41,031; 56 Fair Empl Prac Cas 1218 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 4 Sep 1991 WorldLII flag 10
Coral Constr Co v King County 941 F2d 910; 57 Empl Prac Dec P 41,056 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 8 Aug 1991 WorldLII flag 44
Donaghy v City of Omaha a Pj 933 F2d 1448; 59 USLW 2733; 56 Empl Prac Dec P 40,792; 55 Fair Empl Prac Cas 1547 United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit United States 7 Aug 1991 WorldLII flag 18
Newark Branch National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 940 F2d 792; 56 Empl Prac Dec P 40,906; 69 Ed Law Rep 214; 60 USLW 2096; 56 Fair Empl Prac Cas 680 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 19 Jul 1991 WorldLII flag 13
Morgan v R Burke 926 F2d 86; 65 Ed Law Rep 1075 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 21 Feb 1991 WorldLII flag 3
Roque-Rodriguez v Lema Moya 920 F2d 752; 65 Ed Law Rep 1082; 18 Fed RServ3d 1279; 55 Empl Prac Dec P 40,564 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 7 Jan 1991 WorldLII flag 11
Cunico v Pueblo School District 917 F2d 431; 63 Ed Law Rep 713; 54 Empl Prac Dec P 40,335; 54 Fair Empl Prac Cas 88 United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit United States 19 Oct 1990 WorldLII flag 24
Rutan v Republican Party of Illinois 497 US 62; 111 L Ed 2d 52; 110 SCt 2729 United States Supreme Court United States 30 Aug 1990 WorldLII flag 235
Auriemma v Rice 910 F2d 1449; 59 USLW 2160; 54 Empl Prac Dec P 40,154; 53 Fair Empl Prac Cas 1276 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 20 Aug 1990 WorldLII flag 41
Long v City of Saginaw 129 911 F2d 1192; 116 Lab Cas 10,367; 54 Empl Prac Dec P 40,153; 53 Fair Empl Prac Cas 1025 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 14 Aug 1990 WorldLII flag 10
Cone Corporation Jw v Hillsborough County J 908 F2d 908; 54 Empl Prac Dec P 40,145; 59 USLW 2168 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 13 Aug 1990 WorldLII flag 21
Metro Broadcasting, Inc v FCC 497 US 547; 111 L Ed 2d 445; 110 SCt 2997 United States Supreme Court United States 27 Jun 1990 WorldLII flag 85
Naacp Detroit Branch v Detroit Police Officers Association a 900 F2d 903; 53 Empl Prac Dec P 39,797; 52 Fair Empl Prac Cas 1001 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 18 Jun 1990 WorldLII flag 6
Kuemmerlein v Board of Education of Madison Metropolitan School District a E a Johnson 894 F2d 257; 58 Ed Law Rep 465; 52 Empl Prac Dec P 39,618; 52 Fair Empl Prac Cas 123 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 30 Jan 1990 WorldLII flag 11
Davis v City and County of San Francisco 890 F2d 1438; 15 Fed RServ3d 782; 52 Empl Prac Dec P 39,498; 51 Fair Empl Prac Cas 1542 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 4 Dec 1989 WorldLII flag 26
Harmon v Thornburgh 878 F2d 484; 58 USLW 2039; 278 USApp DC 382 United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit United States - District of Columbia 1 Sep 1989 WorldLII flag 31
Ward v Rock Against Racism 491 US 781; 105 L Ed 2d 661; 109 SCt 2746 United States Supreme Court United States 30 Aug 1989 WorldLII flag 384
Martin v Wilks 490 US 755; 104 L Ed 2d 835; 109 SCt 2180 United States Supreme Court United States 11 Aug 1989 WorldLII flag 111
Messer v Curci W 881 F2d 219; 58 USLW 2093 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 25 Jul 1989 WorldLII flag 7
United Fence Guard Rail Corporation v M Cuomo E M L 878 F2d 588 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 26 Jun 1989 WorldLII flag 7
Shurberg Broadcasting of Hartford, Inc v FCC 876 F2d 902; 278 USApp DC 24; 57 USLW 2571 United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit United States - District of Columbia 16 Jun 1989 WorldLII flag 10
Howard v L McLucas American Federation of Government Employees 871 F2d 1000; 50 Empl Prac Dec P 38,970; 56 Fair Empl Prac Cas 387 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 2 Jun 1989 WorldLII flag 16
Shields v Burge 874 F2d 1201 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 15 May 1989 WorldLII flag 14
Jones v Truck Drivers Local Union No 838 F2d 856; 45 Empl Prac Dec P 37,778; 45 Fair Empl Prac Cas 1721 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 21 Mar 1989 WorldLII flag 8
Rutan v Republican Party of Illinois 868 F2d 943; 13 Fed RServ3d 175; 57 USLW 2518 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 16 Feb 1989 WorldLII flag 29
Pitts v Thornburgh 866 F2d 1450; 275 USApp DC 332 United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit United States - District of Columbia 31 Jan 1989 WorldLII flag 15
City of Richmond v JA Croson Co 488 US 469; 102 L Ed 2d 854; 109 SCt 706 United States Supreme Court United States 23 Jan 1989 WorldLII flag 251
Barhold Afl-Cio v J Rodriguez F P 863 F2d 233; 57 USLW 2418; 48 Empl Prac Dec P 38,514; 48 Fair Empl Prac Cas 786 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 8 Dec 1988 WorldLII flag 11
Watson v Fort Worth Bank & Trust 487 US 977; 101 L Ed 2d 827; 108 SCt 2777 United States Supreme Court United States 29 Jun 1988 WorldLII flag 208
Curse v Director Office of Workers' Compensation Programs United States Department of Labor 843 F2d 456 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 26 Apr 1988 WorldLII flag 3
Little Rock School District v R 839 F2d 1296; 44 Ed Law Rep 1081 United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit United States 24 Mar 1988 WorldLII flag 12
Boos v Barry 485 US 312; 99 L Ed 2d 333; 108 SCt 1157 United States Supreme Court United States 22 Mar 1988 WorldLII flag 157
International Union United Mine Workers of America v Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission 840 F2d 77; 268 USApp DC 197; 56 USLW 2504 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States - District of Columbia 1 Mar 1988 WorldLII flag 6
Michigan Road Builders Association Inc v G Milliken 832 F2d 1150; 56 USLW 2315; 46 Empl Prac Dec P 37,874 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 23 Feb 1988 WorldLII flag 2
Jaimes v Lucas Metropolitan Housing Authority B Hud 833 F2d 1203 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 3 Feb 1988 WorldLII flag 2
International Union United Mine Workers of America v Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission 840 F2d 77; 268 USApp DC 197; 56 USLW 2504 United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit United States 1 Mar 1988 WorldLII flag 6
United States Court of Appeals District of Columbia Circuit 833 F2d 367; 266 USApp DC 117; 45 Empl Prac Dec P 37,774 United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit United States - District of Columbia 20 Nov 1987 WorldLII flag 2
McQuillen v Wisconsin Education Association Council E 830 F2d 659; 44 Empl Prac Dec P 37,470; 42 Ed Law Rep 76; 44 Fair Empl Prac Cas 1566; 56 USLW 2219 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 16 Oct 1987 WorldLII flag 11
Ja Croson Co v City of Richmond Ja Croson Co 822 F2d 1355; 56 USLW 2050; 43 Empl Prac Dec P 37,215 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 18 Sep 1987 WorldLII flag 7
Hk Porter Co Inc v Metropolitan Dade County 825 F2d 324; 44 Empl Prac Dec P 37,363 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 24 Aug 1987 WorldLII flag 4
Ledoux v District of Columbia J Greene 820 F2d 1293; 261 USApp DC 114; 43 Empl Prac Dec P 37,140; 43 Fair Empl Prac Cas 1880 United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit United States - District of Columbia 16 Jun 1987 WorldLII flag 3
Britton v South Bend Community School Corporation 819 F2d 766; 39 Ed Law Rep 1025; 55 USLW 2659; 43 Empl Prac Dec P 37,104; 43 Fair Empl Prac Cas 1483 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 18 May 1987 WorldLII flag 7
Shimkus v Gersten Companies 816 F2d 1318; 7 Fed RServ3d 767 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 6 May 1987 WorldLII flag 2
Johnson v Transportation Agency 480 US 616; 94 L Ed 2d 615; 107 SCt 1442 United States Supreme Court United States 25 Mar 1987 WorldLII flag 115
Associated General Contractors of California Inc v City and County of San Francisco 813 F2d 922; 55 USLW 2547; 42 Empl Prac Dec P 36,894 United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit United States 23 Mar 1987 WorldLII flag 17
Hammon v S Barry Dc Byrne 813 F2d 412; 259 USApp DC 50; 42 Empl Prac Dec P 36,804; 43 Fair Empl Prac Cas 89; 55 USLW 2473 United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit United States - District of Columbia 27 Feb 1987 WorldLII flag 5
United States v Paradise 480 US 149; 94 L Ed 2d 203; 107 SCt 1053 United States Supreme Court United States 25 Feb 1987 WorldLII flag 101
Jenkins v Missouri 807 F2d 657; 36 Ed Law Rep 569 United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit United States 5 Feb 1987 WorldLII flag 32
Samayoa Samayoa v Chicago Board of Education 807 F2d 643; 38 Ed Law Rep 36 United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit United States 10 Dec 1986 WorldLII flag 1
Walters v City of Atlanta a Walters 803 F2d 1135; 42 Empl Prac Dec P 36,715; 42 Fair Empl Prac Cas 387; 55 USLW 2314 United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit United States 10 Nov 1986 WorldLII flag 23
Youngblood v W Dalzell 804 F2d 360; 55 USLW 2292; 41 Empl Prac Dec P 36,668; 42 Fair Empl Prac Cas 415 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 7 Nov 1986 WorldLII flag 3
Long v City of Saginaw [1986] USCA6 1755 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 20 Oct 1986 WorldLII flag
Edinger and Son Inc v City of Louisville Kentucky 802 F2d 213; 55 USLW 2221 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 1 Oct 1986 WorldLII flag 4
Berry v School District of City of Benton Harbor 801 F2d 872; 35 Ed Law Rep 63; 42 Empl Prac Dec P 36,772; 41 Fair Empl Prac Cas 1510 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 29 Sep 1986 WorldLII flag
Galas v McKee 801 F2d 200 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 11 Sep 1986 WorldLII flag 21
Finzer v S Barry 798 F2d 1450; 55 USLW 2128; 255 USApp DC 19 United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit United States - District of Columbia 9 Sep 1986 WorldLII flag 10
Latinos Unidos De Chelsea En Accion v Secretary of Housing and Urban Development 799 F2d 774; 55 USLW 2111; 41 Empl Prac Dec P 36,628; 41 Fair Empl Prac Cas 838 United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit United States 12 Aug 1986 WorldLII flag 12
Lilly v City of Beckley West Virginia 797 F2d 191; 41 Empl Prac Dec P 36,462; 41 Fair Empl Prac Cas 772; 55 USLW 2121 United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit United States 7 Aug 1986 WorldLII flag 2
Horn v Kean 796 F2d 668; 55 USLW 2077 United States Court of Appeals, Third Circuit United States 16 Jul 1986 WorldLII flag 22
Sheet Metal Workers v EEOC 478 US 421; 92 L Ed 2d 344; 106 SCt 3019; [1986] Yates Sel Cas 355 United States Supreme Court United States - New York 2 Jul 1986 WorldLII flag 77
International Ass'n of Firefighters v City of Cleveland 478 US 501; 92 L Ed 2d 405; 106 SCt 3063 United States Supreme Court United States 2 Jul 1986 WorldLII flag 137

Law Journal Articles Referring to this Case

Journal Article Title Citation(s) Author Jurisdiction Date †  Full Text Citation Index
"Political culture and the rule of law: comparing the United States and New Zealand" (2012) 12 Otago Law Review 663 Wendel, W Bradley New Zealand circa 2012 NZLII flag
Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act - Iraqi Sovereign Immunity (2009) 123 Harvard Law Review 292 Harvard Law Review United States 1 Jan 2009 WorldLII flag
Civil Rights Act, Title VII - Compliance Efforts (2009) 123 Harvard Law Review 282 Harvard Law Review United States 1 Jan 2009 WorldLII flag
Seattle and Louisville School Cases: There is No Other Way (2007) 121 Harvard Law Review 158 J Harvie Wilkinson III United States 1 Jan 2007 WorldLII flag 1
A Tribute to Justice Sandra Day O'Connor (2006) 119 Harvard Law Review 1239 Joyce, Craig United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag
Civil Rights, Antitrust, and Early Decision Programs (2006) 115 Yale Law Journal 880 Afram, Ruby Z United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag
"Kerr Principle, State Action, and Legal Rights, The" (2006) 105 Michigan Law Review 1 Herzog, Don United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag
< i > Grutter < /i > at Work: A Title VII Critique of Constitutional Affirmative Action (2006) 115 Yale Law Journal 1408 Bulman-Pozen, Jessica United States 1 Jan 2006 WorldLII flag
Race as Mission Critical: The Occupational Need Rationale in Military Affirmative Action and Beyond (2004) 113 Yale Law Journal 1093 Leach, Bryan W United States 1 Jan 2004 WorldLII flag 1
Minorities, Shareholder and Otherwise (2003) 113 Yale Law Journal 119 Chander, Anupam United States 1 Jan 2003 WorldLII flag 1
Framing Transactions in Constitutional Law (2002) 111 Yale Law Journal 1311 Levinson, Daryl J United States 1 Jan 2002 WorldLII flag 2
Kabuki Mask of < I > Bush v Gore < /I &gt (2001) 111 Yale Law Journal 223 Levin, Nick United States 1 Jan 2001 WorldLII flag
"The 'best qualified' - for what? The place of affirmative action in a mission-focused New Zealand law school admissions policy" [2000] NZYbkNZJur 5 MacKinnon, Ken Australia circa 2000 NZLII flag

Legislation Cited

Legislation Name Provision
Fourteenth Amendment
First Amendment
Constitution

Cases and Articles Cited

Case Name Citation(s) Court Jurisdiction Date †  Full Text Citation Index
Batson v Kentucky 476 US 79; 106 SCt 1712; 90 L Ed 2d 69; 90 L Ed 2d 79 United States Supreme Court United States 30 Apr 1986 WorldLII flag 1207
Vasquez v Hillery 474 US 254; 88 L Ed 2d 598; 106 SCt 617 United States Supreme Court United States 14 Jan 1986 WorldLII flag 230
City of Cleburne v Cleburne Living Center 473 US 432; 87 L Ed 2d 313; 105 SCt 3249 United States Supreme Court United States 1 Jul 1985 WorldLII flag 573
Marek v Chesny 473 US 1; 87 L Ed 2d 1; 105 SCt 3012 United States Supreme Court United States 27 Jun 1985 WorldLII flag 145
Wygant v Jackson Board of Education Jackson Michigan F 746 F2d 1152; 20 Ed Law Rep 1124; 53 USLW 2236; 35 Empl Prac Dec P 34,729; 36 Fair Empl Prac Cas 153 United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit United States 25 Oct 1984 WorldLII flag 14
Firefighters v Stotts 467 US 561; 81 L Ed 2d 483; 104 SCt 2576 United States Supreme Court United States 12 Jun 1984 WorldLII flag 136
Palmore v Sidoti 466 US 429; 80 L Ed 2d 421; 104 SCt 1879 United States Supreme Court United States 25 Apr 1984 WorldLII flag 95
Mississippi University for Women v Hogan 458 US 718; 73 L Ed 2d 1090; 102 SCt 3331; 102 SCt 331 United States Supreme Court United States 1 Jul 1982 WorldLII flag 145
Board of Education v Pico 457 US 853; 73 L Ed 2d 435; 102 SCt 2799; 4 Ed Law Rep 1013 United States Supreme Court United States 25 Jun 1982 WorldLII flag 92
American Tobacco Co v Patterson 456 US 63; 71 L Ed 2d 748; 102 SCt 1534 United States Supreme Court United States 5 Apr 1982 WorldLII flag 199
Fullilove v Klutznick 448 US 448; 65 L Ed 2d 902; 100 SCt 2758 United States Supreme Court United States 2 Jul 1980 WorldLII flag 224
California Brewers Assn v Bryant 444 US 598; 63 L Ed 2d 55; 100 SCt 814 United States Supreme Court United States 14 Apr 1980 WorldLII flag 29
Rose v Mitchell 443 US 545; 61 L Ed 2d 739; 99 SCt 2993 United States Supreme Court United States 2 Jul 1979 WorldLII flag 123
United Steelworkers of America v Weber 443 US 193; 61 L Ed 2d 480; 99 SCt 2721 United States Supreme Court United States 27 Jun 1979 WorldLII flag 224
Ambach v Norwick 441 US 68; 60 L Ed 2d 49; 99 SCt 1589 United States Supreme Court United States 17 Apr 1979 WorldLII flag 51
Regents of the University of California v Bakke 438 US 265; 57 L Ed 2d 750; 98 SCt 2733 United States Supreme Court United States 28 Jun 1978 WorldLII flag 382
Abood v Detroit Board of Education 431 US 209; 52 L Ed 2d 261; 97 SCt 1782 United States Supreme Court United States 27 Jun 1977 WorldLII flag 197
Hazelwood School District v United States 433 US 299; 53 L Ed 2d 768; 97 SCt 2736; 15 FEP Cases 1 United States Supreme Court United States 27 Jun 1977 WorldLII flag 282
International Brotherhood of Teamsters v United States 431 US 324; 52 L Ed 2d 396; 97 SCt 1843; [1977] Dillon 746 United States Supreme Court United States 31 May 1977 WorldLII flag 1034
United Jewish Organizations v Carey 430 US 144; 51 L Ed 2d 229; 97 SCt 996; 51 L Ed 229 United States Supreme Court United States 1 Mar 1977 WorldLII flag 74
Mathews v Lucas 427 US 495; 49 L Ed 2d 651; 96 SCt 2755 United States Supreme Court United States 29 Jun 1976 WorldLII flag 124
United States v Hazelwood School District 534 F2d 805; 11 Empl Prac Dec P 10,854; 12 Fair Empl Prac Cas 1161 United States Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit United States 25 May 1976 WorldLII flag 10
Franks v Bowman Transportation Co 424 US 747; 44 USLW 4356; 47 L Ed 2d 444; 96 SCt 1251; 47 L Ed 444 United States Supreme Court United States 24 Mar 1976 WorldLII flag 423
Albemarle Paper Co v Moody 422 US 405; 45 L Ed 2d 280; 95 SCt 2362; [1975] Alexander 415; (1975) 43 USLW 4880 United States Supreme Court United States 25 Jun 1975 WorldLII flag 838
"Judicial Scrutiny of 'Benign' Racial Preference in Law School Admissions" (1975) 75 Columbia Law Review 559 Columbia Law Review United States circa 1975 HeinOnline / LexisNexis flag 7
DeFunis v Odegaard 416 US 312; 40 L Ed 2d 164; 94 SCt 1704 United States Supreme Court United States 23 Apr 1974 WorldLII flag 311
Alexander v Gardner-Denver Co 415 US 36; 39 L Ed 2d 147; 94 SCt 1011; 39 L Ed 147 United States Supreme Court United States 19 Feb 1974 WorldLII flag 623
San Antonio Independent School District v Rodriguez 411 US 1; 36 L Ed 2d 16; 93 SCt 1278; (1973) 41 USLW 4407 United States Supreme Court United States 23 Apr 1973 WorldLII flag 480
Graham v Richardson 403 US 365; 29 L Ed 2d 534; 91 SCt 1848; 29 L Ed 534 United States Supreme Court United States 14 Jun 1971 WorldLII flag 216
Swann v Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education 402 US 1; 28 L Ed 2d 554; 91 SCt 1267; 28 L Ed 554; 15-16 Green 391 United States Supreme Court United States - New Jersey 7 Jun 1971 WorldLII flag 588
McDaniel v Barresi 402 US 39; 28 L Ed 2d 582; 91 SCt 1287 United States Supreme Court United States 20 Apr 1971 WorldLII flag 38
North Carolina State Board of Education v Swann 402 US 43; 28 L Ed 2d 586; 91 SCt 1284 United States Supreme Court United States 20 Apr 1971 WorldLII flag 71
Green v County School Board 391 US 430; 20 L Ed 2d 716; 88 SCt 1689 United States Supreme Court United States 27 May 1968 WorldLII flag 422
Loving v Virginia 388 US 1; 18 L Ed 2d 1010; 87 SCt 1817; 18 L Ed 1010 United States Supreme Court United States 12 Jun 1967 WorldLII flag 304
McLaughlin v Florida 379 US 184; 13 L Ed 2d 222; 85 SCt 283 United States Supreme Court United States 7 Dec 1964 WorldLII flag 167
Turner v City of Memphis 369 US 350; 7 L Ed 2d 762; 82 SCt 805 United States Supreme Court United States 26 Mar 1962 WorldLII flag 64
Burton v Wilmington Parking Authority 365 US 715; 6 L Ed 2d 45; 81 SCt 856 United States Supreme Court United States 17 Apr 1961 WorldLII flag 400
Brown v Board of Education 349 US 294; 99 L Ed 1083; 75 SCt 753 United States Supreme Court United States 31 May 1955 WorldLII flag 449
Brown v Board of Education 347 US 483; 38 ALR 2d 1180; 98 L Ed 2d 873; [1954] Idaho 349; 98 L Ed 873; 74 SCt 686 United States Supreme Court United States 17 May 1954 WorldLII flag 1011
Ford Motor Co v Huffman 345 US 330; 97 L Ed 2d 1048; 97 L Ed 1048; 73 SCt 681 United States Supreme Court United States 6 Apr 1953 WorldLII flag 333
Aeronautical Indus Dist Lodge v Campbell 337 US 521; 93 L Ed 1513; 69 SCt 1287 United States Supreme Court United States 20 Jun 1949 WorldLII flag 64
Shelley v Kraemer 334 US 1; 68 SCt 836; 3 ALR 2d 441; 92 L Ed 1161 United States Supreme Court United States 3 May 1948 WorldLII flag 374
Steele v Louisville & NR Co 323 US 192; 89 L Ed 173; 65 SCt 226 United States Supreme Court United States 18 Dec 1944 WorldLII flag 467
Hirabayashi v United States 320 US 81; 87 L Ed 2d 1774; 87 L Ed 1774; 63 SCt 1375 United States Supreme Court United States 21 Jun 1943 WorldLII flag 436
United States v Carolene Products Co 304 US 144; 82 L Ed 1234; 58 SCt 778 United States Supreme Court United States 25 Apr 1938 WorldLII flag 316
Buchanan v Warley 245 US 60; 62 L Ed 149; 38 SCt 16 United States Supreme Court United States 11 Apr 1916 WorldLII flag 104
Strauder v West Virginia 100 US 303; 10 Ot 303; 25 L Ed 2d 664; 25 L Ed 664 United States Supreme Court United States 1 Oct 1879 WorldLII flag 275
Wygant v Jackson Board of Education 546 FSupp 1195 United States Westlaw flag 5
cert denied 478 US 1014; 106 SCt 3320; 92 L Ed 2d 727 United States Supreme Court United States Westlaw flag 6
Baker v United States District Court 471 US 1014; 105 SCt 2016; 85 L Ed 2d 299 United States Supreme Court United States Westlaw flag 40
United States v Hazelwood School District 392 FSupp 1276 United States Westlaw flag 4
"Foreword: In Search of Evolving Doctrine on a Changing Court: A Model for a Newer Equal Protection" 86 Harvard Law Review 1 Harvard Law Review United States HeinOnline / LexisNexis flag 81
DeFunis v Odegaard 82 Wash2d 11; 507 P2d 1169 United States - Washington flag 9
"The Constitutionality of Reverse Racial Discrimination" 41 University of Chicago Law Review 723 University of Chicago Law Review United States HeinOnline / LexisNexis flag 21

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